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Effect of Intravenous Ketorolac on Postoperative Pain in Mandibular Fracture Surgery; A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.
Bull Emerg Trauma 2017; 5(1):13-17BE

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effects of intravenous ketorolac on early postoperative pain in patients with mandibular fractures, who underwent surgical repair.

METHODS

This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in Shahid Rajaei Hospital, affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences during a 1-year period from 2015 to 2016. We included a total number of 50 patients with traumatic mandibular fractures who underwent surgical repair. Patients with obvious contraindications to ketorolac such as asthma, renal dysfunction, peptic ulceration, bleeding disorders, cardiovascular disease, mental retardation, or allergy to ketorolac or NSAIDS, were excluded. The patients were randomly assigned to receive intravenous ketorolac (30 mg) at the end of operation in post anesthesia care unit immediately upon the onset of pain (n=25), or intravenous distilled water as placebo (n=25). Postoperative monitoring included non-invasive arterial blood pressure, ECG, and peripheral oxygen saturation. The postoperative pain was evaluated by a nurse using visual analog scale (VAS) (0-100 mm) pain score 4 hours after surgery and was compared between the two study groups.

RESULTS

Overall we included 50 patients (25 per group) in the current study. The baseline characteristics including age, gender, weight, operation duration, anesthesia duration and type of surgical procedure were comparable between two study groups. Those who received placebo had significantly higher requirements for analgesic use compared to ketorolac group (72% vs. 28%; p=0.002). Ketorolac significantly reduced the pain intensity 30-min after the operation (p<0.001). There were no significant side effects associated with ketorolac.

CONCLUSION

Intravenous single-dose ketorolac is a safe and effective analgesic agent for the short-term management of mild to moderate acute postoperative pain in mandibular fracture surgery and can be used as an alternative to opioids.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.Student Research Committee, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Science, Shiraz, Iran.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28246618

Citation

Eftekharian, Hamid Reza, and Homa Ilkhani Pak. "Effect of Intravenous Ketorolac On Postoperative Pain in Mandibular Fracture Surgery; a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial." Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma, vol. 5, no. 1, 2017, pp. 13-17.
Eftekharian HR, Ilkhani Pak H. Effect of Intravenous Ketorolac on Postoperative Pain in Mandibular Fracture Surgery; A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Bull Emerg Trauma. 2017;5(1):13-17.
Eftekharian, H. R., & Ilkhani Pak, H. (2017). Effect of Intravenous Ketorolac on Postoperative Pain in Mandibular Fracture Surgery; A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma, 5(1), pp. 13-17.
Eftekharian HR, Ilkhani Pak H. Effect of Intravenous Ketorolac On Postoperative Pain in Mandibular Fracture Surgery; a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Bull Emerg Trauma. 2017;5(1):13-17. PubMed PMID: 28246618.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effect of Intravenous Ketorolac on Postoperative Pain in Mandibular Fracture Surgery; A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. AU - Eftekharian,Hamid Reza, AU - Ilkhani Pak,Homa, PY - 2017/3/2/entrez PY - 2017/3/2/pubmed PY - 2017/3/2/medline KW - Analgesic KW - Ketorolac KW - Mandibular Fracture KW - Postoperative pain KW - Surgery SP - 13 EP - 17 JF - Bulletin of emergency and trauma JO - Bull Emerg Trauma VL - 5 IS - 1 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of intravenous ketorolac on early postoperative pain in patients with mandibular fractures, who underwent surgical repair. METHODS: This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in Shahid Rajaei Hospital, affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences during a 1-year period from 2015 to 2016. We included a total number of 50 patients with traumatic mandibular fractures who underwent surgical repair. Patients with obvious contraindications to ketorolac such as asthma, renal dysfunction, peptic ulceration, bleeding disorders, cardiovascular disease, mental retardation, or allergy to ketorolac or NSAIDS, were excluded. The patients were randomly assigned to receive intravenous ketorolac (30 mg) at the end of operation in post anesthesia care unit immediately upon the onset of pain (n=25), or intravenous distilled water as placebo (n=25). Postoperative monitoring included non-invasive arterial blood pressure, ECG, and peripheral oxygen saturation. The postoperative pain was evaluated by a nurse using visual analog scale (VAS) (0-100 mm) pain score 4 hours after surgery and was compared between the two study groups. RESULTS: Overall we included 50 patients (25 per group) in the current study. The baseline characteristics including age, gender, weight, operation duration, anesthesia duration and type of surgical procedure were comparable between two study groups. Those who received placebo had significantly higher requirements for analgesic use compared to ketorolac group (72% vs. 28%; p=0.002). Ketorolac significantly reduced the pain intensity 30-min after the operation (p<0.001). There were no significant side effects associated with ketorolac. CONCLUSION: Intravenous single-dose ketorolac is a safe and effective analgesic agent for the short-term management of mild to moderate acute postoperative pain in mandibular fracture surgery and can be used as an alternative to opioids. SN - 2322-2522 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28246618/Effect_of_Intravenous_Ketorolac_on_Postoperative_Pain_in_Mandibular_Fracture_Surgery L2 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/28246618/ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -