Whole-spine Computed Tomography Findings in SAPHO Syndrome.J Rheumatol 2017; 44(5):648-654JR
We evaluated the whole-spine computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome to improve our understanding of this rare disease.
Whole-spine CT images obtained in 69 patients with SAPHO were reviewed. For each individual, a total of 25 vertebrae were evaluated for the distribution of affected vertebrae, CT manifestations of vertebral lesions, symmetry and location of distribution of the lesions on vertebrae, involvement pattern, and narrowing of adjacent intervertebral disc space. Paravertebral ligamentous ossifications, apophyseal joint disorders, and costovertebral joint disorders were also evaluated.
All the 69 patients with SAPHO exhibited abnormalities on whole-spine CT. Sixty-four had vertebral lesions, 52 had paravertebral ossifications, and 47 had both. The vertebral lesions were observed in 441 vertebrae, with a predilection for thoracic spine. The lesions exhibited a mixture of cortical erosion, reactive osteosclerosis of surrounding cancellous bone, and syndesmophyte. They may be confined to the vertebral corner (65.1%) or be extensive, involving the endplate (34.9%). Corner lesions could start in any part of the epiphyseal ring. The lesions were asymmetrically distributed. The affected vertebrae were more consecutively involved in a "kissing" appearance (78.2%). Intervertebral disc spaces were usually normal or mildly narrowed. There were 320 foci of paravertebral ossifications observed, with a predilection for the supraspinous ligament. Paravertebral ossifications were delicate and segmental. Ossifications throughout annulus fibrosis and apophyseal joint were not observed.
Our investigation of the distributional, morphological features and the involvement pattern of spinal lesions in patients with SAPHO demonstrated distinct CT characteristics.