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Coffee, tea, caffeine, and risk of hypertension: The Singapore Chinese Health Study.
Eur J Nutr. 2018 Jun; 57(4):1333-1342.EJ

Abstract

PURPOSE

The relationship between coffee and tea, and risk of hypertension remains controversial in Western populations. We investigated these associations in an Asian population.

METHODS

The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a population-based prospective cohort that recruited 63,257 Chinese aged 45-74 years and residing in Singapore from 1993 to 1998. Information on consumption of coffee, tea, and other lifestyle factors was collected at baseline, and self-reported physician-diagnosed hypertension was assessed during two follow-up interviews (1999-2004, 2006-2010).

RESULTS

We identified 13,658 cases of incident hypertension after average 9.5 years. Compared to those who drank one cup of coffee/day, the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 0.87 (0.83-0.91) for <weekly drinkers and 0.93 (0.86-1.00) for ≥3 cups/day drinkers. Compared to <weekly drinkers, daily drinkers of black or green tea had slight increase in risk, but these risk estimates were attenuated and became non-significant after adjustment for caffeine. After adjusting for coffee, there was a stepwise dose-response relationship between caffeine intake and hypertension risk; compared to the lowest intake (<50 mg/day), those in the highest intake (≥300 mg/day) had a 16% increase in risk; HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04-1.31 (p trend = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS

Drinking coffee <1 cup/week or ≥3 cups/day had lower risk than drinking one cup/day. Caffeine may account for increased risk in daily tea drinkers and in those who drank one cup of coffee/day. The inverse U-shaped association with coffee suggests that at higher doses, other ingredients in coffee may offset the effect of caffeine and confer benefit on blood pressure.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Office of Clinical Sciences, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, 169857, Singapore.National Heart Center Singapore, Singapore, 169609, Singapore.Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117549, Singapore.Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.Office of Clinical Sciences, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, 169857, Singapore. woonpuay.koh@duke-nus.edu.sg. Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117549, Singapore. woonpuay.koh@duke-nus.edu.sg.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28251341

Citation

Chei, Choy-Lye, et al. "Coffee, Tea, Caffeine, and Risk of Hypertension: the Singapore Chinese Health Study." European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 57, no. 4, 2018, pp. 1333-1342.
Chei CL, Loh JK, Soh A, et al. Coffee, tea, caffeine, and risk of hypertension: The Singapore Chinese Health Study. Eur J Nutr. 2018;57(4):1333-1342.
Chei, C. L., Loh, J. K., Soh, A., Yuan, J. M., & Koh, W. P. (2018). Coffee, tea, caffeine, and risk of hypertension: The Singapore Chinese Health Study. European Journal of Nutrition, 57(4), 1333-1342. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-017-1412-4
Chei CL, et al. Coffee, Tea, Caffeine, and Risk of Hypertension: the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Eur J Nutr. 2018;57(4):1333-1342. PubMed PMID: 28251341.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Coffee, tea, caffeine, and risk of hypertension: The Singapore Chinese Health Study. AU - Chei,Choy-Lye, AU - Loh,Julian Kenrick, AU - Soh,Avril, AU - Yuan,Jian-Min, AU - Koh,Woon-Puay, Y1 - 2017/03/01/ PY - 2016/09/26/received PY - 2017/02/19/accepted PY - 2017/3/3/pubmed PY - 2018/12/14/medline PY - 2017/3/3/entrez KW - Caffeine KW - Coffee KW - Hypertension KW - Prospective study KW - Tea SP - 1333 EP - 1342 JF - European journal of nutrition JO - Eur J Nutr VL - 57 IS - 4 N2 - PURPOSE: The relationship between coffee and tea, and risk of hypertension remains controversial in Western populations. We investigated these associations in an Asian population. METHODS: The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a population-based prospective cohort that recruited 63,257 Chinese aged 45-74 years and residing in Singapore from 1993 to 1998. Information on consumption of coffee, tea, and other lifestyle factors was collected at baseline, and self-reported physician-diagnosed hypertension was assessed during two follow-up interviews (1999-2004, 2006-2010). RESULTS: We identified 13,658 cases of incident hypertension after average 9.5 years. Compared to those who drank one cup of coffee/day, the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 0.87 (0.83-0.91) for <weekly drinkers and 0.93 (0.86-1.00) for ≥3 cups/day drinkers. Compared to <weekly drinkers, daily drinkers of black or green tea had slight increase in risk, but these risk estimates were attenuated and became non-significant after adjustment for caffeine. After adjusting for coffee, there was a stepwise dose-response relationship between caffeine intake and hypertension risk; compared to the lowest intake (<50 mg/day), those in the highest intake (≥300 mg/day) had a 16% increase in risk; HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04-1.31 (p trend = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Drinking coffee <1 cup/week or ≥3 cups/day had lower risk than drinking one cup/day. Caffeine may account for increased risk in daily tea drinkers and in those who drank one cup of coffee/day. The inverse U-shaped association with coffee suggests that at higher doses, other ingredients in coffee may offset the effect of caffeine and confer benefit on blood pressure. SN - 1436-6215 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28251341/Coffee_tea_caffeine_and_risk_of_hypertension:_The_Singapore_Chinese_Health_Study_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-017-1412-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -