Combined venomics, antivenomics and venom gland transcriptome analysis of the monocoled cobra (Naja kaouthia) from China.J Proteomics. 2017 04 21; 159:19-31.JP
We conducted an omics-analysis of the venom of Naja kaouthia from China. Proteomics analysis revealed six protein families [three-finger toxins (3-FTx), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), nerve growth factor, snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP), cysteine-rich secretory protein and ohanin], and venom-gland transcriptomics analysis revealed 28 protein families from 79 unigenes. 3-FTx (56.5% in proteome/82.0% in transcriptome) and PLA2 (26.9%/13.6%) were identified as the most abundant families in venom proteome and venom-gland transcriptome. Furthermore, N. kaouthia venom expressed strong lethality (i.p. LD50: 0.79μg/g) and myotoxicity (CK: 5939U/l) in mice, and showed notable activity in PLA2 but weak activity in SVMP, l-amino acid oxidase or 5' nucleotidase. Antivenomic assessment revealed that several venom components (nearly 17.5% of total venom) from N. kaouthia could not be thoroughly immunocaptured by commercial Naja atra antivenom. ELISA analysis revealed that there was no difference in the cross-reaction between N. kaouthia and N. atra venoms against the N. atra antivenom. The use of commercial N. atra antivenom in treatment of snakebites caused by N. kaouthia is reasonable, but design of novel antivenom with the attention on enhancing the immune response of non-immunocaptured components should be encouraged.
The venomics, antivenomics and venom-gland transcriptome of the monocoled cobra (Naja kaouthia) from China have been elucidated. Quantitative and qualitative differences are evident when venom proteomic and venom-gland transcriptomic profiles are compared. Two protein families (3-FTx and PLA2) are found to be the predominated components in N. kaouthia venom, and considered as the major players in functional role of venom. Other protein families with relatively low abundance appear to be minor in the functional significance. Antivenomics and ELISA evaluation reveal that the N. kaouthia venom can be effectively immunorecognized by commercial N. atra antivenom, but still a small number of venom components could not be thoroughly immunocaptured. The findings indicate that exploring the precise composition of snake venom should be executed by an integrated omics-approach, and elucidating the venom composition is helpful in understanding composition-function relationships and will facilitate the clinical application of antivenoms.