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Nipple Pain Incidence, the Predisposing Factors, the Recovery Period After Care Management, and the Exclusive Breastfeeding Outcome.
Breastfeed Med 2017; 12:169-173BM

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Nipple pain is the most common complaint of breastfeeding mothers during the immediate postpartum period. Persistent nipple pain is associated with low breastfeeding rate at 6 months postpartum.

OBJECTIVE

To further explore the incidence of nipple pain, associated predisposing factors, time for recovery after management, and the impact on exclusive breastfeeding rates.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Included in this study were 1,649 singleton, pregnant women who delivered and had their 1-week follow-up at the breastfeeding clinic during the period of January 2013 to December 2015. The mothers who experienced nipple pain were analyzed for the incidence, the predisposing factors, and the recovery period after care management. The breastfeeding outcome comparison of both, mothers with and without pain, was measured by the exclusive breastfeeding rate at the sixth week postpartum.

RESULTS

The incidence of nipple pain was at 9.6% by day 7. A predisposing factor of nipple pain was primiparity (relative risk = 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.3-2.5). The reasons for nipple pain were inappropriate positioning and latching (72.3%), tongue-tie (23.2%), and oversupply (4.4%). The recovery period after care management was 1-2 weeks. There were no statistically significant differences between the 6-week exclusive breastfeeding rates of the mothers with nipple pain with treatment and the mothers without nipple pain.

CONCLUSION

Persistent nipple pain was a common problem. The active management, including early detection and treatment, would help the mothers recover within a 2-week period and there was no significant difference of exclusive breastfeeding rates between the mothers who had early care management and the mothers without nipple pain.

Authors+Show Affiliations

1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University , Nakhon Nayok, Thailand .1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University , Nakhon Nayok, Thailand .1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University , Nakhon Nayok, Thailand .1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University , Nakhon Nayok, Thailand .2 Department of Obstetric and Gynecology Nursing, HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Medical Center , Nakhon Nayok, Thailand .

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28278382

Citation

Puapornpong, Pawin, et al. "Nipple Pain Incidence, the Predisposing Factors, the Recovery Period After Care Management, and the Exclusive Breastfeeding Outcome." Breastfeeding Medicine : the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine, vol. 12, 2017, pp. 169-173.
Puapornpong P, Paritakul P, Suksamarnwong M, et al. Nipple Pain Incidence, the Predisposing Factors, the Recovery Period After Care Management, and the Exclusive Breastfeeding Outcome. Breastfeed Med. 2017;12:169-173.
Puapornpong, P., Paritakul, P., Suksamarnwong, M., Srisuwan, S., & Ketsuwan, S. (2017). Nipple Pain Incidence, the Predisposing Factors, the Recovery Period After Care Management, and the Exclusive Breastfeeding Outcome. Breastfeeding Medicine : the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine, 12, pp. 169-173. doi:10.1089/bfm.2016.0194.
Puapornpong P, et al. Nipple Pain Incidence, the Predisposing Factors, the Recovery Period After Care Management, and the Exclusive Breastfeeding Outcome. Breastfeed Med. 2017;12:169-173. PubMed PMID: 28278382.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Nipple Pain Incidence, the Predisposing Factors, the Recovery Period After Care Management, and the Exclusive Breastfeeding Outcome. AU - Puapornpong,Pawin, AU - Paritakul,Panwara, AU - Suksamarnwong,Maysita, AU - Srisuwan,Siriwan, AU - Ketsuwan,Sukwadee, Y1 - 2017/03/09/ PY - 2017/3/10/pubmed PY - 2018/1/30/medline PY - 2017/3/10/entrez KW - exclusive breastfeeding KW - nipple pain KW - recovery period KW - the predisposing factors SP - 169 EP - 173 JF - Breastfeeding medicine : the official journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine JO - Breastfeed Med VL - 12 N2 - BACKGROUND: Nipple pain is the most common complaint of breastfeeding mothers during the immediate postpartum period. Persistent nipple pain is associated with low breastfeeding rate at 6 months postpartum. OBJECTIVE: To further explore the incidence of nipple pain, associated predisposing factors, time for recovery after management, and the impact on exclusive breastfeeding rates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Included in this study were 1,649 singleton, pregnant women who delivered and had their 1-week follow-up at the breastfeeding clinic during the period of January 2013 to December 2015. The mothers who experienced nipple pain were analyzed for the incidence, the predisposing factors, and the recovery period after care management. The breastfeeding outcome comparison of both, mothers with and without pain, was measured by the exclusive breastfeeding rate at the sixth week postpartum. RESULTS: The incidence of nipple pain was at 9.6% by day 7. A predisposing factor of nipple pain was primiparity (relative risk = 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.3-2.5). The reasons for nipple pain were inappropriate positioning and latching (72.3%), tongue-tie (23.2%), and oversupply (4.4%). The recovery period after care management was 1-2 weeks. There were no statistically significant differences between the 6-week exclusive breastfeeding rates of the mothers with nipple pain with treatment and the mothers without nipple pain. CONCLUSION: Persistent nipple pain was a common problem. The active management, including early detection and treatment, would help the mothers recover within a 2-week period and there was no significant difference of exclusive breastfeeding rates between the mothers who had early care management and the mothers without nipple pain. SN - 1556-8342 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28278382/Nipple_Pain_Incidence_the_Predisposing_Factors_the_Recovery_Period_After_Care_Management_and_the_Exclusive_Breastfeeding_Outcome_ L2 - https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/full/10.1089/bfm.2016.0194?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -