Current patterns of antithrombotic and revascularisation therapy in patients hospitalised for acute coronary syndromes. Data from the Polish subset of the EPICOR study.Kardiol Pol. 2017; 75(5):445-452.KP
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in developed countries, including Poland. Antithrom-botic drugs play a crucial role in the management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Recent clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy and safety profiles of new antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents, which may be used as add-on therapy or replacements for older drugs. The long-t E: rm follow-u P: of antithrombotic management patterns I: n acute COR: onary syndrome patients (EPICOR) is a prospective international observational study (NCT01171404) designed to describe the use of antithrombotic management strategies for the treatment of ACS during the acute phase and over a follow-up period of up to two years from the index event. A total of 608 patients from 26 hospitals in Poland were enrolled into the registry between September 2010 and March 2011.
The aim of this work was to summarise data on pre-hospital and in-hospital and revascularisation therapy in 608 patients enrolled into the registry in Poland.
The registry collected the records of patients who were hospitalised for ACS within 24 h of symptom onset and who had a final diagnosis of unstable angina (UA), non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), or ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), and survived to discharge.
Among 608 enrolled patients, 291 had a final diagnosis of STEMI and 317 had a final diagnosis of NSTEMI/UA. Patients with NSTEMI/UA were generally at higher cardiovascular risk than patients with STEMI. Before admission to the hospital antiplatelet drugs (acetylsalicylic acid [ASA] and/or clopidogrel) were administered more frequently to STEMI than to NSTEMI/UA patients. Glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitors were used in almost half of the STEMI patients and in nearly 10% of NSTEMI/UA patients. The combinations of antiplatelet drugs included ASA + clopidogrel (predominantly in NSTEMI/UA) or ASA + clopidogrel + GPIIb/IIIa inhibitor (predominantly in STEMI), while other possible combinations were not used. Almost all STEMI patients (96.2%) and the clear majority of NSTEMI/UA patients (73.8%) were subjected to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), while coronary artery bypass grafting was performed in only 2.5% of the NSTEMI/UA patients. At the time of discharge from hospital almost all patients with STEMI received ASA together with clopidogrel, but this strategy was used only in 91.5% of patients with NSTEMI/UA (p < 0.05). Unfractionated heparin was used in 62% of patients, low-molecular weight heparin in 35%, fondaparinux in 0.7%, and bivalirudin in none of the studied patients.
Among patients with ACS enrolled to the EPICOR study in Poland, antiplatelet therapy was started in the pre-hospital phase in approximately one-third of the STEMI patients and in one out of ten of the NSTEMI/UA patients. The initial antiplatelet therapy was mostly based on ASA + clopidogrel and was followed by a combination of ASA + clopidogrel + GPIIb/IIIa inhibitor. Other drugs or combinations, as well as novel antiplatelet drugs, were only used exceptionally. Almost 10% of NSTEMI/UA patients did not receive dual antiplatelet therapy at discharge. PCI plays a dominating role in the first-line treatment for the patients enrolled to this registry in Poland.