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Pharmacists' perceptions regarding the impact of hydrocodone rescheduling on prescription volume, workflow management, and patient outcomes.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2017 Mar - Apr; 57(2S):S51-S62.JA

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To determine (1) pharmacists' perceptions of how rescheduling of hydrocodone combination products (HCPs) from Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) Schedule III to DEA Schedule II has influenced prescription volume and revenue, pharmacy workflow management, and patient outcomes; and (2) whether perceptions differed between pharmacists who support versus those who oppose HCP rescheduling.

DESIGN

A cross-sectional mail survey.

SETTING

Texas community pharmacies from October to December 2015.

PARTICIPANTS

One thousand randomly selected, registered Texas community pharmacists drawn from the Texas State Board of Pharmacy registry.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

Pharmacists' perceptions, measured on a 5-point Likert scale of HCP rescheduling and its impact on prescription volume and revenue, workflow management, and patient outcomes. Measures were developed specifically for this study.

RESULTS

The response rate was 17% (n = 164). The majority of pharmacists (70.4%) supported HCP rescheduling. More than 80% of respondents perceived that the volume of 2 alternative pain medications-tramadol (DEA Schedule IV) and acetaminophen with codeine (DEA Schedule III) prescriptions dispensed-either "increased" or "significantly increased" (82.0% and 85.8%, respectively) following rescheduling. Overall, pharmacists who opposed rescheduling were significantly more likely to report negative perceptions regarding revenue (P = 0.0142), inventory management (P = 0.0024), and drug shortages (P = 0.0005) than those who supported rescheduling. However, pharmacists who supported rescheduling had more positive perceptions about electronic prescribing (P <0.0115), patient safety (P <0.001), drug abuse (P <0.0001), and legitimate use (P <0.0001).

CONCLUSION

Results showed that legislative efforts, such as rescheduling HCPs, influenced pharmacists' perceptions of practice and patient outcomes. Currently, little is known regarding the impact of HCP rescheduling on pharmacy practice. As new laws are passed to address the opioid epidemic in America, more research will be needed to determine whether legislation is an effective means for managing appropriate access to HCPs and other narcotic analgesics.

Authors

No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28292504

Citation

Varisco, Tyler J., et al. "Pharmacists' Perceptions Regarding the Impact of Hydrocodone Rescheduling On Prescription Volume, Workflow Management, and Patient Outcomes." Journal of the American Pharmacists Association : JAPhA, vol. 57, no. 2S, 2017, pp. S51-S62.
Varisco TJ, Ogunsanya ME, Barner JC, et al. Pharmacists' perceptions regarding the impact of hydrocodone rescheduling on prescription volume, workflow management, and patient outcomes. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2017;57(2S):S51-S62.
Varisco, T. J., Ogunsanya, M. E., Barner, J. C., & Fleming, M. L. (2017). Pharmacists' perceptions regarding the impact of hydrocodone rescheduling on prescription volume, workflow management, and patient outcomes. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association : JAPhA, 57(2S), S51-S62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2017.01.020
Varisco TJ, et al. Pharmacists' Perceptions Regarding the Impact of Hydrocodone Rescheduling On Prescription Volume, Workflow Management, and Patient Outcomes. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2017 Mar - Apr;57(2S):S51-S62. PubMed PMID: 28292504.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Pharmacists' perceptions regarding the impact of hydrocodone rescheduling on prescription volume, workflow management, and patient outcomes. AU - Varisco,Tyler J, AU - Ogunsanya,Motolani E, AU - Barner,Jamie C, AU - Fleming,Marc L, PY - 2016/08/19/received PY - 2017/01/21/revised PY - 2017/01/22/accepted PY - 2017/3/16/entrez PY - 2017/3/16/pubmed PY - 2017/9/5/medline SP - S51 EP - S62 JF - Journal of the American Pharmacists Association : JAPhA JO - J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) VL - 57 IS - 2S N2 - OBJECTIVES: To determine (1) pharmacists' perceptions of how rescheduling of hydrocodone combination products (HCPs) from Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) Schedule III to DEA Schedule II has influenced prescription volume and revenue, pharmacy workflow management, and patient outcomes; and (2) whether perceptions differed between pharmacists who support versus those who oppose HCP rescheduling. DESIGN: A cross-sectional mail survey. SETTING: Texas community pharmacies from October to December 2015. PARTICIPANTS: One thousand randomly selected, registered Texas community pharmacists drawn from the Texas State Board of Pharmacy registry. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pharmacists' perceptions, measured on a 5-point Likert scale of HCP rescheduling and its impact on prescription volume and revenue, workflow management, and patient outcomes. Measures were developed specifically for this study. RESULTS: The response rate was 17% (n = 164). The majority of pharmacists (70.4%) supported HCP rescheduling. More than 80% of respondents perceived that the volume of 2 alternative pain medications-tramadol (DEA Schedule IV) and acetaminophen with codeine (DEA Schedule III) prescriptions dispensed-either "increased" or "significantly increased" (82.0% and 85.8%, respectively) following rescheduling. Overall, pharmacists who opposed rescheduling were significantly more likely to report negative perceptions regarding revenue (P = 0.0142), inventory management (P = 0.0024), and drug shortages (P = 0.0005) than those who supported rescheduling. However, pharmacists who supported rescheduling had more positive perceptions about electronic prescribing (P <0.0115), patient safety (P <0.001), drug abuse (P <0.0001), and legitimate use (P <0.0001). CONCLUSION: Results showed that legislative efforts, such as rescheduling HCPs, influenced pharmacists' perceptions of practice and patient outcomes. Currently, little is known regarding the impact of HCP rescheduling on pharmacy practice. As new laws are passed to address the opioid epidemic in America, more research will be needed to determine whether legislation is an effective means for managing appropriate access to HCPs and other narcotic analgesics. SN - 1544-3450 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28292504/Pharmacists'_perceptions_regarding_the_impact_of_hydrocodone_rescheduling_on_prescription_volume_workflow_management_and_patient_outcomes_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1544-3191(17)30022-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -