Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Predictive Value of Age- and Sex-Specific Nomograms of Global Plaque Burden on Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography for Major Cardiac Events.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2017 Mar; 10(3)CC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Age-adjusted coronary artery disease (CAD) burden identified on coronary computed tomography angiography predicts major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) risk; however, it seldom contributes to clinical decision making because of a lack of nomographic data. We aimed to develop clinically pragmatic age- and sex-specific nomograms of CAD burden using coronary computed tomography angiography and to validate their prognostic use.

METHODS AND RESULTS

Patients prospectively enrolled in phase I of the CONFIRM registry (Coronary CT Angiography Evaluation for Clinical Outcomes) were included (derivation cohort: n=21,132; 46% female) to develop CAD nomograms based on age-sex percentiles of segment involvement score (SIS) at each year of life (40-79 years). The relationship between SIS age-sex percentiles (SIS%) and MACE (all-cause death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, and late revascularization) was tested in a nonoverlapping validation cohort (phase II, CONFIRM registry; n=3030, 44% female) by stratifying patients into 3 SIS% groups (≤50th, 51-75th, and >75th) and comparing annualized MACE rates and time to MACE using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for Framingham risk and chest pain typicality. Age-sex percentiles were well fitted to second-order polynomial curves (men: R2=0.86±0.12; women: R2=0.86±0.14). Using the nomograms, there were 1576, 965, and 489 patients, respectively, in the ≤50th, 51-75th, and >75th SIS% groups. Annualized event rates were higher among patients with greater CAD burden (2.1% [95% confidence interval: 1.7%-2.7%], 3.9% [95% confidence interval: 3.0%-5.1%], and 7.2% [95% confidence interval: 5.4%-9.6%] in ≤50th, 51-75th, and >75th SIS% groups, respectively; P<0.001). Adjusted MACE risk was significantly increased among patients in SIS% groups above the median compared with patients below the median (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.9 [1.3-2.8] for 51-75th SIS% group and 3.4 [2.3-5.0] for >75th SIS% group; P<0.01 for both).

CONCLUSIONS

We have developed clinically pragmatic age- and sex-specific nomograms of CAD prevalence using coronary computed tomography angiography findings. Global plaque burden measured using SIS% is predictive of cardiac events independent of traditional risk assessment.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION

URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01443637.

Authors+Show Affiliations

From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.).From the Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (C.N., P.B., J.L.); Department of Imaging, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (D.S.B., H.G.); Department of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Centre, New York, NY (A.A., J.N.); Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (L.J.S.); Department of Cardiology, Concord Hospital and The University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (L.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Erlangen, Germany (S.A.); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (M.H.A.-M.); Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS Milan, Italy (D.A., G.P.); Department of Medicine, Harbor University of California Los Angeles Medical Center (M.J.B.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Monastier, Treviso, Italy (F.C., E.M.); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (F.C., E.M.); Tennessee Heart and Vascular Institute, Hendersonville (T.Q.C.); Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea (H.-J.C.); William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oaks, MI (K.C., G.R.); Department of Medicine and Radiology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (B.C.); Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Miami, FL (R.C.C.); Capitol Cardiology Associates, Albany, NY (A.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (A.D.); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (G.F.); Division of Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany (M.H., J.H.); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (P.A.K.); Seoul National University Hospital, South Korea (Y.-J.K.); Department of Surgery, Curry Cabral Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal (H.M.); Department of Cardiology at the Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport School of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, (R.R.); Department of Medicine, Walter Reed Medical Center, Washington, DC (T.C.V.); and Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York (J.M.). jleipsic@providencehealth.bc.ca.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Validation Study

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28292858

Citation

Naoum, Christopher, et al. "Predictive Value of Age- and Sex-Specific Nomograms of Global Plaque Burden On Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography for Major Cardiac Events." Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging, vol. 10, no. 3, 2017.
Naoum C, Berman DS, Ahmadi A, et al. Predictive Value of Age- and Sex-Specific Nomograms of Global Plaque Burden on Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography for Major Cardiac Events. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2017;10(3).
Naoum, C., Berman, D. S., Ahmadi, A., Blanke, P., Gransar, H., Narula, J., Shaw, L. J., Kritharides, L., Achenbach, S., Al-Mallah, M. H., Andreini, D., Budoff, M. J., Cademartiri, F., Callister, T. Q., Chang, H. J., Chinnaiyan, K., Chow, B., Cury, R. C., DeLago, A., ... Leipsic, J. (2017). Predictive Value of Age- and Sex-Specific Nomograms of Global Plaque Burden on Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography for Major Cardiac Events. Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging, 10(3). https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.116.004896
Naoum C, et al. Predictive Value of Age- and Sex-Specific Nomograms of Global Plaque Burden On Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography for Major Cardiac Events. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2017;10(3) PubMed PMID: 28292858.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Predictive Value of Age- and Sex-Specific Nomograms of Global Plaque Burden on Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography for Major Cardiac Events. AU - Naoum,Christopher, AU - Berman,Daniel S, AU - Ahmadi,Amir, AU - Blanke,Philipp, AU - Gransar,Heidi, AU - Narula,Jagat, AU - Shaw,Leslee J, AU - Kritharides,Leonard, AU - Achenbach,Stephan, AU - Al-Mallah,Mouaz H, AU - Andreini,Daniele, AU - Budoff,Matthew J, AU - Cademartiri,Filippo, AU - Callister,Tracy Q, AU - Chang,Hyuk-Jae, AU - Chinnaiyan,Kavitha, AU - Chow,Benjamin, AU - Cury,Ricardo C, AU - DeLago,Augustin, AU - Dunning,Allison, AU - Feuchtner,Gudrun, AU - Hadamitzky,Martin, AU - Hausleiter,Joerg, AU - Kaufmann,Philipp A, AU - Kim,Yong-Jin, AU - Maffei,Erica, AU - Marquez,Hugo, AU - Pontone,Gianluca, AU - Raff,Gilbert, AU - Rubinshtein,Ronen, AU - Villines,Todd C, AU - Min,James, AU - Leipsic,Jonathon, PY - 2016/03/20/received PY - 2017/01/04/accepted PY - 2017/3/16/entrez PY - 2017/3/16/pubmed PY - 2017/5/10/medline KW - computed tomography angiography KW - coronary angiography KW - coronary artery disease KW - epidemiology KW - nomograms JF - Circulation. Cardiovascular imaging JO - Circ Cardiovasc Imaging VL - 10 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Age-adjusted coronary artery disease (CAD) burden identified on coronary computed tomography angiography predicts major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) risk; however, it seldom contributes to clinical decision making because of a lack of nomographic data. We aimed to develop clinically pragmatic age- and sex-specific nomograms of CAD burden using coronary computed tomography angiography and to validate their prognostic use. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients prospectively enrolled in phase I of the CONFIRM registry (Coronary CT Angiography Evaluation for Clinical Outcomes) were included (derivation cohort: n=21,132; 46% female) to develop CAD nomograms based on age-sex percentiles of segment involvement score (SIS) at each year of life (40-79 years). The relationship between SIS age-sex percentiles (SIS%) and MACE (all-cause death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, and late revascularization) was tested in a nonoverlapping validation cohort (phase II, CONFIRM registry; n=3030, 44% female) by stratifying patients into 3 SIS% groups (≤50th, 51-75th, and >75th) and comparing annualized MACE rates and time to MACE using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for Framingham risk and chest pain typicality. Age-sex percentiles were well fitted to second-order polynomial curves (men: R2=0.86±0.12; women: R2=0.86±0.14). Using the nomograms, there were 1576, 965, and 489 patients, respectively, in the ≤50th, 51-75th, and >75th SIS% groups. Annualized event rates were higher among patients with greater CAD burden (2.1% [95% confidence interval: 1.7%-2.7%], 3.9% [95% confidence interval: 3.0%-5.1%], and 7.2% [95% confidence interval: 5.4%-9.6%] in ≤50th, 51-75th, and >75th SIS% groups, respectively; P<0.001). Adjusted MACE risk was significantly increased among patients in SIS% groups above the median compared with patients below the median (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.9 [1.3-2.8] for 51-75th SIS% group and 3.4 [2.3-5.0] for >75th SIS% group; P<0.01 for both). CONCLUSIONS: We have developed clinically pragmatic age- and sex-specific nomograms of CAD prevalence using coronary computed tomography angiography findings. Global plaque burden measured using SIS% is predictive of cardiac events independent of traditional risk assessment. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01443637. SN - 1942-0080 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28292858/Predictive_Value_of_Age__and_Sex_Specific_Nomograms_of_Global_Plaque_Burden_on_Coronary_Computed_Tomography_Angiography_for_Major_Cardiac_Events_ L2 - https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.116.004896?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -