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Fruit and vegetable consumption and psychological distress: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses based on a large Australian sample.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

Growing evidence suggests a link between diet and mental health. This study aimed to investigate the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and the prevalence and incidence of psychological distress in middle-aged and older Australians.

DESIGN

Cross-sectional and prospective.

SETTING

New South Wales, Australia.

METHODS

A sample of 60 404 adults aged ≥45 years completed baseline (2006-2008) and follow-up (2010) questionnaires. Psychological distress was assessed at baseline and follow-up using the validated Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), a 10-item questionnaire measuring general anxiety and depression. Psychological distress was defined as the presence of high-to-very high levels of distress (K10 score ≥22). Usual fruit and vegetable consumption was assessed using short validated questions. The association between baseline fruit and vegetable consumption and the prevalence or incidence of psychological distress was examined using logistic regression models.

RESULTS

At baseline, 5.6% reported psychological distress. After a mean 2.7 years of follow-up, 4.0% of those who did not report distress at baseline reported distress at follow-up. Baseline fruit and vegetable consumption considered separately or combined, was associated with a lower prevalence of psychological distress even after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle risk factors. Baseline fruit and vegetable consumption, measured separately or combined, was associated with a lower incidence of psychological distress in minimally adjusted models. Most of these associations remained significant at medium levels of intake but were no longer significant at the highest intake levels in fully adjusted models.

CONCLUSIONS

Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption may help reduce psychological distress in middle-aged and older adults. However, the association of fruit and vegetable consumption with the incidence of psychological distress requires further investigation, including the possibility of a threshold effect between medium and higher consumption levels.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Prevention Research Collaboration, Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia.

    ,

    Prevention Research Collaboration, Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia.

    Prevention Research Collaboration, Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia.

    Source

    BMJ open 7:3 2017 03 15 pg e014201

    MeSH

    Aged
    Anxiety
    Australia
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Depression
    Diet
    Feeding Behavior
    Female
    Fruit
    Humans
    Logistic Models
    Longitudinal Studies
    Male
    Mental Health
    Middle Aged
    New South Wales
    Prospective Studies
    Stress, Psychological
    Vegetables

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    28298322

    Citation

    Nguyen, Binh, et al. "Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Psychological Distress: Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Analyses Based On a Large Australian Sample." BMJ Open, vol. 7, no. 3, 2017, pp. e014201.
    Nguyen B, Ding D, Mihrshahi S. Fruit and vegetable consumption and psychological distress: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses based on a large Australian sample. BMJ Open. 2017;7(3):e014201.
    Nguyen, B., Ding, D., & Mihrshahi, S. (2017). Fruit and vegetable consumption and psychological distress: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses based on a large Australian sample. BMJ Open, 7(3), pp. e014201. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014201.
    Nguyen B, Ding D, Mihrshahi S. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Psychological Distress: Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Analyses Based On a Large Australian Sample. BMJ Open. 2017 03 15;7(3):e014201. PubMed PMID: 28298322.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Fruit and vegetable consumption and psychological distress: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses based on a large Australian sample. AU - Nguyen,Binh, AU - Ding,Ding, AU - Mihrshahi,Seema, Y1 - 2017/03/15/ PY - 2017/3/17/entrez PY - 2017/3/17/pubmed PY - 2017/12/27/medline KW - MENTAL HEALTH KW - NUTRITION & DIETETICS SP - e014201 EP - e014201 JF - BMJ open JO - BMJ Open VL - 7 IS - 3 N2 - OBJECTIVES: Growing evidence suggests a link between diet and mental health. This study aimed to investigate the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and the prevalence and incidence of psychological distress in middle-aged and older Australians. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and prospective. SETTING: New South Wales, Australia. METHODS: A sample of 60 404 adults aged ≥45 years completed baseline (2006-2008) and follow-up (2010) questionnaires. Psychological distress was assessed at baseline and follow-up using the validated Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), a 10-item questionnaire measuring general anxiety and depression. Psychological distress was defined as the presence of high-to-very high levels of distress (K10 score ≥22). Usual fruit and vegetable consumption was assessed using short validated questions. The association between baseline fruit and vegetable consumption and the prevalence or incidence of psychological distress was examined using logistic regression models. RESULTS: At baseline, 5.6% reported psychological distress. After a mean 2.7 years of follow-up, 4.0% of those who did not report distress at baseline reported distress at follow-up. Baseline fruit and vegetable consumption considered separately or combined, was associated with a lower prevalence of psychological distress even after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle risk factors. Baseline fruit and vegetable consumption, measured separately or combined, was associated with a lower incidence of psychological distress in minimally adjusted models. Most of these associations remained significant at medium levels of intake but were no longer significant at the highest intake levels in fully adjusted models. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption may help reduce psychological distress in middle-aged and older adults. However, the association of fruit and vegetable consumption with the incidence of psychological distress requires further investigation, including the possibility of a threshold effect between medium and higher consumption levels. SN - 2044-6055 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28298322/Fruit_and_vegetable_consumption_and_psychological_distress:_cross_sectional_and_longitudinal_analyses_based_on_a_large_Australian_sample_ L2 - http://bmjopen.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=28298322 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -