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Improved Screening Test for Idiopathic Infantile Hypercalcemia Confirms Residual Levels of Serum 24,25-(OH)2 D3 in Affected Patients.
J Bone Miner Res. 2017 Jul; 32(7):1589-1596.JB

Abstract

CYP24A1 mutations are now accepted as a cause of idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia (IIH). A rapid liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based blood test enabling measurement of the 25-OH-D3 :24,25-(OH)2 D3 ratio (R) can identify IIH patients on the basis of reduced C24-hydroxylation of 25-OH-D3 by CYP24A1 in vivo. Although values of this ratio are significantly elevated in IIH, somewhat surprisingly, serum 24,25-(OH)2 D3 remains detectable. The current study explores possible explanations for this including: residual CYP24A1 enzyme activity in individuals with certain CYP24A1 genotypes, expression of alternative C24-hydroxylases, and the possibility of isobaric contamination of the 24,25-(OH)2 D3 peak on LC-MS/MS. We employed an extended 20-min run time on LC-MS/MS to study serum vitamin D metabolites in patients with IIH due to mutations of CYP24A1 or SLC34A1; in unaffected heterozygotes and dialysis patients; in patients with vitamin D deficiency; as well as in normal subjects exhibiting a broad range of 25-OH-D levels. We identified 25,26-(OH)2 D3 as a contaminant of the 24,25-(OH)2 D3 peak. In normals, the concentration of 24,25-(OH)2 D3 greatly exceeds 25,26-(OH)2 D3 ; however, 25,26-(OH)2 D3 becomes more significant in IIH with CYP24A1 mutations and in dialysis patients, where 24,25-(OH)2 D3 levels are low when CYP24A1 function is compromised. Mean R in 30 IIH-CYP24A1 patients was 700 (range, 166 to 2168; cutoff = 140) as compared with 31 in 163 controls. Furthermore, patients possessing CYP24A1 L409S alleles exhibited higher 24,25-(OH)2 D3 levels and lower R (mean R = 268; n = 8) than patients with other mutations. We conclude that a chromatographic approach which resolves 24,25-(OH)2 D3 from 25,26-(OH)2 D3 produces a more accurate R that can be used to differentiate pathological states where CYP24A1 activity is altered. The origin of the residual serum 24,25-(OH)2 D3 in IIH patients appears to be multifactorial. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biomedical & Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada.Department of Biomedical & Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada.Health Sciences Research, Waters Corporation, Wilmslow, UK.Health Sciences Research, Waters Corporation, Wilmslow, UK.Department of General Pediatrics, University Children's Hospital, Muenster, Germany.Department of Genetics, University de Basse-Normandie, Caen, France. National Reference Center for Rare Diseases of Calcium and Phosphorus Metabolism (Le Centre National de Référence des maladies rares du métabolisme du calcium et du phosphore), Caen University Hospital, Caen, France.Department of Genetics, University de Basse-Normandie, Caen, France. National Reference Center for Rare Diseases of Calcium and Phosphorus Metabolism (Le Centre National de Référence des maladies rares du métabolisme du calcium et du phosphore), Caen University Hospital, Caen, France.Bone Metabolism Unit, Department of Medicine, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE, USA.Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA.Department of Biomedical & Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28304097

Citation

Kaufmann, Martin, et al. "Improved Screening Test for Idiopathic Infantile Hypercalcemia Confirms Residual Levels of Serum 24,25-(OH)2 D3 in Affected Patients." Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 32, no. 7, 2017, pp. 1589-1596.
Kaufmann M, Morse N, Molloy BJ, et al. Improved Screening Test for Idiopathic Infantile Hypercalcemia Confirms Residual Levels of Serum 24,25-(OH)2 D3 in Affected Patients. J Bone Miner Res. 2017;32(7):1589-1596.
Kaufmann, M., Morse, N., Molloy, B. J., Cooper, D. P., Schlingmann, K. P., Molin, A., Kottler, M. L., Gallagher, J. C., Armas, L., & Jones, G. (2017). Improved Screening Test for Idiopathic Infantile Hypercalcemia Confirms Residual Levels of Serum 24,25-(OH)2 D3 in Affected Patients. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, 32(7), 1589-1596. https://doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3135
Kaufmann M, et al. Improved Screening Test for Idiopathic Infantile Hypercalcemia Confirms Residual Levels of Serum 24,25-(OH)2 D3 in Affected Patients. J Bone Miner Res. 2017;32(7):1589-1596. PubMed PMID: 28304097.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Improved Screening Test for Idiopathic Infantile Hypercalcemia Confirms Residual Levels of Serum 24,25-(OH)2 D3 in Affected Patients. AU - Kaufmann,Martin, AU - Morse,Nicole, AU - Molloy,Billy Joe, AU - Cooper,Donald P, AU - Schlingmann,Karl Peter, AU - Molin,Arnaud, AU - Kottler,Marie Laure, AU - Gallagher,J Christopher, AU - Armas,Laura, AU - Jones,Glenville, Y1 - 2017/04/21/ PY - 2016/09/27/received PY - 2017/02/22/revised PY - 2017/03/15/accepted PY - 2017/3/18/pubmed PY - 2018/3/27/medline PY - 2017/3/18/entrez KW - 24,25-(OH)2D3 KW - 25,26-(OH)2D3 KW - CYP24A1 KW - HYPERCALCEMIA KW - LC-MS/MS SP - 1589 EP - 1596 JF - Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research JO - J Bone Miner Res VL - 32 IS - 7 N2 - CYP24A1 mutations are now accepted as a cause of idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia (IIH). A rapid liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based blood test enabling measurement of the 25-OH-D3 :24,25-(OH)2 D3 ratio (R) can identify IIH patients on the basis of reduced C24-hydroxylation of 25-OH-D3 by CYP24A1 in vivo. Although values of this ratio are significantly elevated in IIH, somewhat surprisingly, serum 24,25-(OH)2 D3 remains detectable. The current study explores possible explanations for this including: residual CYP24A1 enzyme activity in individuals with certain CYP24A1 genotypes, expression of alternative C24-hydroxylases, and the possibility of isobaric contamination of the 24,25-(OH)2 D3 peak on LC-MS/MS. We employed an extended 20-min run time on LC-MS/MS to study serum vitamin D metabolites in patients with IIH due to mutations of CYP24A1 or SLC34A1; in unaffected heterozygotes and dialysis patients; in patients with vitamin D deficiency; as well as in normal subjects exhibiting a broad range of 25-OH-D levels. We identified 25,26-(OH)2 D3 as a contaminant of the 24,25-(OH)2 D3 peak. In normals, the concentration of 24,25-(OH)2 D3 greatly exceeds 25,26-(OH)2 D3 ; however, 25,26-(OH)2 D3 becomes more significant in IIH with CYP24A1 mutations and in dialysis patients, where 24,25-(OH)2 D3 levels are low when CYP24A1 function is compromised. Mean R in 30 IIH-CYP24A1 patients was 700 (range, 166 to 2168; cutoff = 140) as compared with 31 in 163 controls. Furthermore, patients possessing CYP24A1 L409S alleles exhibited higher 24,25-(OH)2 D3 levels and lower R (mean R = 268; n = 8) than patients with other mutations. We conclude that a chromatographic approach which resolves 24,25-(OH)2 D3 from 25,26-(OH)2 D3 produces a more accurate R that can be used to differentiate pathological states where CYP24A1 activity is altered. The origin of the residual serum 24,25-(OH)2 D3 in IIH patients appears to be multifactorial. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. SN - 1523-4681 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28304097/Improved_Screening_Test_for_Idiopathic_Infantile_Hypercalcemia_Confirms_Residual_Levels_of_Serum_2425__OH_2_D3_in_Affected_Patients_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3135 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -