Role of σ1 Receptors in Learning and Memory and Alzheimer's Disease-Type Dementia.Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017; 964:213-233.AE
The present chapter will review the role of σ1 receptor in learning and memory and neuroprotection , against Alzheimer's type dementia. σ1 Receptor agonists have been tested in a variety of pharmacological and pathological models of learning impairments in rodents these last past 20 years. Their anti-amnesic effects have been explained by the wide-range modulatory role of σ1 receptors on Ca2+ mobilizations, neurotransmitter responses, and particularly glutamate and acetylcholine systems, and neurotrophic factors. Recent observations from genetic and pharmacological studies have shown that σ1 receptor can also be targeted in neurodegenerative diseases, and particularly Alzheimer's disease . Several compounds, acting partly through the σ1 receptor, have showed effective neuroprotection in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease . We will review the data and discuss the possible mechanisms of action, particularly focusing on oxidative stress and mitochondrial integrity, trophic factors and a novel hypothesis suggesting a functional interaction between the σ1 receptor and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Finally, we will discuss the pharmacological peculiarities of non-selective σ1 receptor ligands, now developed as neuroprotectants in Alzheimer's disease , and positive modulators, recently described and that showed efficacy against learning and memory deficits.