Gastrointestinal absorption, antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effect of the major carotenoids of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis on cancer cells.Food Funct 2017; 8(4):1672-1679FF
The gastrointestinal absorption of the main carotenoids present in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, crocetin, crocin-1 and crocin-2, was assayed through transport studies on MKN-28 and Caco-2 cell lines. Overall, crocetin was the compound that presented the highest gastrointestinal transport efficiency. Additionally, and since after absorption crocins are metabolized into crocetin, the antiproliferative capacity of crocetin was assayed in MKN-28 (stomach), MCF-7 (breast) and Caco-2 (colon) cancer cell lines. The results point to an antiproliferative effect of crocetin on the three cell lines tested. Anti-inflammatory properties were also assayed. Overall, crocetin showed a potential involvement in the downregulation of IL-1β and TNF-α but not IL-6. Altogether, these results suggest that these compounds can have an important role against cancer proliferation, highlighting the importance of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis as a nutraceutical food source.