Protective Actions of H2S in Acute Myocardial Infarction and Heart Failure.Compr Physiol. 2017 03 16; 7(2):583-602.CP
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was identified as the third gasotransmitter in 1996 following the discoveries of the biological importance of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. Although H2S has long been considered a highly toxic gas, the discovery of its presence and enzymatic production in mammalian tissues supports a critical role for this physiological signaling molecule. H2S is synthesized endogenously by three enzymes: cystathionine β-synthase, cystathionine-γ-lyase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase. H2S plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiovascular function as H2S has been shown to modulate: vasodilation, angiogenesis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Perturbation of endogenous production of H2S has been associated with many pathological conditions of the cardiovascular system such as diabetes, heart failure, and hypertension. As such, modulation of the endogenous H2S signaling pathway or administration of exogenous H2S has been shown to be cytoprotective. This review article will provide a summary of the current body of evidence on the role of H2S signaling in the setting of myocardial ischemia and heart failure. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:583-602, 2017.