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Schrödinger's Cheshire Cat: Are Haploid Emiliania huxleyi Cells Resistant to Viral Infection or Not?
Viruses. 2017 03 18; 9(3)V

Abstract

Emiliania huxleyi is the main calcite producer on Earth and is routinely infected by a virus (EhV); a double stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus belonging to the family Phycodnaviridae. E. huxleyi exhibits a haplodiploid life cycle; the calcified diploid stage is non-motile and forms extensive blooms. The haploid phase is a non-calcified biflagellated cell bearing organic scales. Haploid cells are thought to resist infection, through a process deemed the "Cheshire Cat" escape strategy; however, a recent study detected the presence of viral lipids in the same haploid strain. Here we report on the application of an E. huxleyi CCMP1516 EhV-86 combined tiling array (TA) that further confirms an EhV infection in the RCC1217 haploid strain, which grew without any signs of cell lysis. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR verified the presence of viral RNA in the haploid cells, yet indicated an absence of viral DNA, respectively. These infected cells are an alternative stage of the virus life cycle deemed the haplococcolithovirocell. In this instance, the host is both resistant to and infected by EhV, i.e., the viral transcriptome is present in haploid cells whilst there is no evidence of viral lysis. This superimposed state is reminiscent of Schrödinger's cat; of being simultaneously both dead and alive.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Marine Biological Association of the UK, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, UK. gidmord@gmail.com.Marine Biological Association of the UK, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, UK. fverret@imbb.forth.gr.Marine Biological Association of the UK, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, UK. ancba@mba.ac.uk.Marine Biological Association of the UK, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, UK. dsch@mba.ac.uk.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28335465

Citation

Mordecai, Gideon J., et al. "Schrödinger's Cheshire Cat: Are Haploid Emiliania Huxleyi Cells Resistant to Viral Infection or Not?" Viruses, vol. 9, no. 3, 2017.
Mordecai GJ, Verret F, Highfield A, et al. Schrödinger's Cheshire Cat: Are Haploid Emiliania huxleyi Cells Resistant to Viral Infection or Not? Viruses. 2017;9(3).
Mordecai, G. J., Verret, F., Highfield, A., & Schroeder, D. C. (2017). Schrödinger's Cheshire Cat: Are Haploid Emiliania huxleyi Cells Resistant to Viral Infection or Not? Viruses, 9(3). https://doi.org/10.3390/v9030051
Mordecai GJ, et al. Schrödinger's Cheshire Cat: Are Haploid Emiliania Huxleyi Cells Resistant to Viral Infection or Not. Viruses. 2017 03 18;9(3) PubMed PMID: 28335465.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Schrödinger's Cheshire Cat: Are Haploid Emiliania huxleyi Cells Resistant to Viral Infection or Not? AU - Mordecai,Gideon J, AU - Verret,Frederic, AU - Highfield,Andrea, AU - Schroeder,Declan C, Y1 - 2017/03/18/ PY - 2017/01/31/received PY - 2017/03/10/revised PY - 2017/03/14/accepted PY - 2017/3/25/entrez PY - 2017/3/25/pubmed PY - 2017/8/23/medline KW - EhV KW - Emiliania huxleyi KW - Phycodnaviridae KW - tiling array KW - transcriptome KW - virus JF - Viruses JO - Viruses VL - 9 IS - 3 N2 - Emiliania huxleyi is the main calcite producer on Earth and is routinely infected by a virus (EhV); a double stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus belonging to the family Phycodnaviridae. E. huxleyi exhibits a haplodiploid life cycle; the calcified diploid stage is non-motile and forms extensive blooms. The haploid phase is a non-calcified biflagellated cell bearing organic scales. Haploid cells are thought to resist infection, through a process deemed the "Cheshire Cat" escape strategy; however, a recent study detected the presence of viral lipids in the same haploid strain. Here we report on the application of an E. huxleyi CCMP1516 EhV-86 combined tiling array (TA) that further confirms an EhV infection in the RCC1217 haploid strain, which grew without any signs of cell lysis. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR verified the presence of viral RNA in the haploid cells, yet indicated an absence of viral DNA, respectively. These infected cells are an alternative stage of the virus life cycle deemed the haplococcolithovirocell. In this instance, the host is both resistant to and infected by EhV, i.e., the viral transcriptome is present in haploid cells whilst there is no evidence of viral lysis. This superimposed state is reminiscent of Schrödinger's cat; of being simultaneously both dead and alive. SN - 1999-4915 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28335465/Schrödinger's_Cheshire_Cat:_Are_Haploid_Emiliania_huxleyi_Cells_Resistant_to_Viral_Infection_or_Not L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=v9030051 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -