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Systematic Evaluation of Chronic Metal-Mixture Toxicity to Three Species and Implications for Risk Assessment.
Environ Sci Technol. 2017 04 18; 51(8):4615-4623.ES

Abstract

Metal contamination generally occurs as mixtures. However, it is yet unresolved how to address metal mixtures in risk assessment. Therefore, using consistent methodologies, we have set up experiments to identify which mixture model applies best at low-level effects, i.e., the independent action (IA) or concentration addition (CA) reference model. The toxicity of metal mixtures (Ni, Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb) to Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Hordeum vulgare was investigated in different waters or soils, totaling 30 different experiments. Some mixtures of different metals, each individually causing <10% inhibition, yielded much larger inhibition (up to 66%) when dosed in combination. In general, IA was most accurate in predicting mixture toxicity, while CA was the most conservative. At low-effect levels important in risk assessments, CA overestimated mixture toxicity to daphnids and H. vulgare, on average, with a factor 1.4 to 3.6. Observed mixture interactions could be related to bioavailability or by competition interactions, either for binding sites of dissolved organic carbon or for biotic ligand sites. Our study suggests that the current metal-by-metal approach in risk evaluations may not be conservative enough for metal mixtures.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, UGent Campus Coupure , Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Gent, Belgium.Division Soil and Water Management, KU Leuven , Kasteelpark Arenberg 20 bus 2459, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.Department of Biology (SPHERE Group), University of Antwerp Campus Groenenborger , Groenerborgerlaan 171, GU761, B-2020 Antwerpen, Belgium.Department of Biology (SPHERE Group), University of Antwerp Campus Groenenborger , Groenerborgerlaan 171, GU761, B-2020 Antwerpen, Belgium.Division Soil and Water Management, KU Leuven , Kasteelpark Arenberg 20 bus 2459, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, UGent Campus Coupure , Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Gent, Belgium.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28339194

Citation

Nys, Charlotte, et al. "Systematic Evaluation of Chronic Metal-Mixture Toxicity to Three Species and Implications for Risk Assessment." Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 51, no. 8, 2017, pp. 4615-4623.
Nys C, Versieren L, Cordery KI, et al. Systematic Evaluation of Chronic Metal-Mixture Toxicity to Three Species and Implications for Risk Assessment. Environ Sci Technol. 2017;51(8):4615-4623.
Nys, C., Versieren, L., Cordery, K. I., Blust, R., Smolders, E., & De Schamphelaere, K. A. C. (2017). Systematic Evaluation of Chronic Metal-Mixture Toxicity to Three Species and Implications for Risk Assessment. Environmental Science & Technology, 51(8), 4615-4623. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b05688
Nys C, et al. Systematic Evaluation of Chronic Metal-Mixture Toxicity to Three Species and Implications for Risk Assessment. Environ Sci Technol. 2017 04 18;51(8):4615-4623. PubMed PMID: 28339194.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Systematic Evaluation of Chronic Metal-Mixture Toxicity to Three Species and Implications for Risk Assessment. AU - Nys,Charlotte, AU - Versieren,Liske, AU - Cordery,Katherine I, AU - Blust,Ronny, AU - Smolders,Erik, AU - De Schamphelaere,Karel A C, Y1 - 2017/03/30/ PY - 2017/3/25/pubmed PY - 2017/8/5/medline PY - 2017/3/25/entrez SP - 4615 EP - 4623 JF - Environmental science & technology JO - Environ Sci Technol VL - 51 IS - 8 N2 - Metal contamination generally occurs as mixtures. However, it is yet unresolved how to address metal mixtures in risk assessment. Therefore, using consistent methodologies, we have set up experiments to identify which mixture model applies best at low-level effects, i.e., the independent action (IA) or concentration addition (CA) reference model. The toxicity of metal mixtures (Ni, Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb) to Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Hordeum vulgare was investigated in different waters or soils, totaling 30 different experiments. Some mixtures of different metals, each individually causing <10% inhibition, yielded much larger inhibition (up to 66%) when dosed in combination. In general, IA was most accurate in predicting mixture toxicity, while CA was the most conservative. At low-effect levels important in risk assessments, CA overestimated mixture toxicity to daphnids and H. vulgare, on average, with a factor 1.4 to 3.6. Observed mixture interactions could be related to bioavailability or by competition interactions, either for binding sites of dissolved organic carbon or for biotic ligand sites. Our study suggests that the current metal-by-metal approach in risk evaluations may not be conservative enough for metal mixtures. SN - 1520-5851 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28339194/Systematic_Evaluation_of_Chronic_Metal_Mixture_Toxicity_to_Three_Species_and_Implications_for_Risk_Assessment_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b05688 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -