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Cognitive Schemas in Placebo and Nocebo Responding: Role of Autobiographical Memories and Expectations.
Clin Ther. 2017 Mar; 39(3):502-512.e1.CT

Abstract

PURPOSE

Placebo effects are presumed to be based on one's expectations and previous experience with regard to a specific treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the specificity and valence of memories and expectations with regard to itch in experimentally induced placebo and nocebo itch responses. It was expected that cognitive schemas with more general and more negative memories and expectations with regard to itch contribute to less placebo itch responding.

METHODS

Validated memory tasks (ie, the Autobiographical Memory Test and the Self-referential Endorsement and Recall Task) and expectation tasks (ie, Future Event Task and the Self-referential Endorsement and Recall Task) were modified for physical symptoms, including itch. Specificity and valence of memories and expectations were assessed prior to a placebo experiment in which expectations regarding electrical itch stimuli were induced in healthy participants.

FINDINGS

Participants who were more specific in their memories regarding itch and who had lesser negative itch-related expectations for the future were more likely to be placebo itch responders. There were no significant differences in effects between the nocebo responders and nonresponders.

IMPLICATIONS

The adapted tasks for assessing cognitive (memory and expectations) schemas on itch seem promising in explaining interindividual differences in placebo itch responding. Future research should investigate whether similar mechanisms apply to patients with chronic itch. This knowledge can be used for identifying patients who will benefit most from the placebo component of a treatment.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Health, Medical and Neuropsychology Unit, Institute of Psychology, Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands; Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands. Electronic address: d.bartels@fsw.leidnuniv.nl.Health, Medical and Neuropsychology Unit, Institute of Psychology, Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands; Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands; Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.Scientific Institute for Quality of Healthcare, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.Centre for the Psychology of Learning and Experimental Psychopathology, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.Centre for the Psychology of Learning and Experimental Psychopathology, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Department of Applied Psychology, Thomas More University College, Antwerp, Belgium.Department of Dermatology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.Health, Medical and Neuropsychology Unit, Institute of Psychology, Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands; Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands; Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; Department of Medical Psychology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28341522

Citation

Bartels, Danielle J P., et al. "Cognitive Schemas in Placebo and Nocebo Responding: Role of Autobiographical Memories and Expectations." Clinical Therapeutics, vol. 39, no. 3, 2017, pp. 502-512.e1.
Bartels DJP, van Laarhoven AIM, Heijmans N, et al. Cognitive Schemas in Placebo and Nocebo Responding: Role of Autobiographical Memories and Expectations. Clin Ther. 2017;39(3):502-512.e1.
Bartels, D. J. P., van Laarhoven, A. I. M., Heijmans, N., Hermans, D., Debeer, E., van de Kerkhof, P. C. M., & Evers, A. W. M. (2017). Cognitive Schemas in Placebo and Nocebo Responding: Role of Autobiographical Memories and Expectations. Clinical Therapeutics, 39(3), 502-e1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2017.02.004
Bartels DJP, et al. Cognitive Schemas in Placebo and Nocebo Responding: Role of Autobiographical Memories and Expectations. Clin Ther. 2017;39(3):502-512.e1. PubMed PMID: 28341522.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cognitive Schemas in Placebo and Nocebo Responding: Role of Autobiographical Memories and Expectations. AU - Bartels,Danielle J P, AU - van Laarhoven,Antoinette I M, AU - Heijmans,Naomi, AU - Hermans,Dirk, AU - Debeer,Elise, AU - van de Kerkhof,Peter C M, AU - Evers,Andrea W M, Y1 - 2017/03/22/ PY - 2016/12/05/received PY - 2017/02/11/revised PY - 2017/02/13/accepted PY - 2017/3/28/pubmed PY - 2017/9/25/medline PY - 2017/3/26/entrez KW - autobiographical memory KW - cognitive bias KW - future expectations KW - itch KW - placebo effect SP - 502 EP - 512.e1 JF - Clinical therapeutics JO - Clin Ther VL - 39 IS - 3 N2 - PURPOSE: Placebo effects are presumed to be based on one's expectations and previous experience with regard to a specific treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the specificity and valence of memories and expectations with regard to itch in experimentally induced placebo and nocebo itch responses. It was expected that cognitive schemas with more general and more negative memories and expectations with regard to itch contribute to less placebo itch responding. METHODS: Validated memory tasks (ie, the Autobiographical Memory Test and the Self-referential Endorsement and Recall Task) and expectation tasks (ie, Future Event Task and the Self-referential Endorsement and Recall Task) were modified for physical symptoms, including itch. Specificity and valence of memories and expectations were assessed prior to a placebo experiment in which expectations regarding electrical itch stimuli were induced in healthy participants. FINDINGS: Participants who were more specific in their memories regarding itch and who had lesser negative itch-related expectations for the future were more likely to be placebo itch responders. There were no significant differences in effects between the nocebo responders and nonresponders. IMPLICATIONS: The adapted tasks for assessing cognitive (memory and expectations) schemas on itch seem promising in explaining interindividual differences in placebo itch responding. Future research should investigate whether similar mechanisms apply to patients with chronic itch. This knowledge can be used for identifying patients who will benefit most from the placebo component of a treatment. SN - 1879-114X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28341522/Cognitive_Schemas_in_Placebo_and_Nocebo_Responding:_Role_of_Autobiographical_Memories_and_Expectations_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0149-2918(17)30119-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -