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Economic Burden of Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea: Retrospective Analysis of a U.S. Commercially Insured Population.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The economic burden associated with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) is not well understood.

OBJECTIVES

To (a) evaluate total annual all-cause, gastrointestinal (GI)-related, and symptom-related (i.e., IBS, diarrhea, abdominal pain) health care resource use and costs among IBS-D patients in a U.S. commercially insured population and (b) estimate incremental all-cause health care costs of IBS-D patients versus matched controls.

METHODS

Patients aged ≥ 18 years with 12 months of continuous medical and pharmacy benefit eligibility in 2013 were identified from the Truven Health MarketScan research database. The study sample included patients with ≥ 1 medical claim with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis code in any position for IBS (ICD-9-CM 564.1x) and either (a) ≥ 2 claims for diarrhea (ICD-9-CM 787.91, 564.5x) on different service dates in 2013, or (b) ≥ 1 claim for diarrhea plus ≥ 1 claim for abdominal pain (ICD-9-CM 789.0x) on different service dates in 2013, or (c) ≥ 1 claim for diarrhea plus ≥ 1 pharmacy claim for a symptom-related prescription on different service dates in 2013. Controls included patients with no claims for IBS, diarrhea, abdominal pain, or symptom-related prescriptions in 2013. Controls were randomly selected and matched with IBS-D patients in a 1:1 ratio based on age (± 4 years), gender, geographic location, and health plan type. All-cause health care resource utilization included medical and pharmacy claims for health care services associated with any condition. Total health care costs were defined as the sum of health plan-paid and patient-paid direct health care costs from prescriptions and medical services, including inpatient, emergency department (ED), and physician office visits, and other outpatient services. A total cost approach was used to assess all-cause, GI-related, and symptom-related health care costs for IBS-D patients. An incremental cost approach via generalized linear models was used to assess the excess all-cause costs attributable to IBS-D after adjusting for demographics and general and GI comorbidities.

RESULTS

Of 39,306 patients (n = 19,653 each for IBS-D and matched controls) included, mean (± SD) age was 47 (± 17) years and 76.5% were female. Compared with controls, IBS-D patients had a significantly higher mean annual number of hospitalizations, ED visits, office visits, and monthly (30-day) prescription fills. Mean annual all-cause health care costs for IBS-D patients were $13,038, with over half (58.4%) attributable to office visits and other outpatient services (e.g., diagnostic tests and laboratory or radiology services), and remaining costs attributable to prescriptions (19.5%), inpatient admissions (13.6%), and ED visits (8.5%). GI-related ($3,817) and symptom-related ($1,693) costs were also primarily driven by other outpatient service costs. After adjusting for demographics and comorbidities, incremental annual all-cause costs associated with IBS-D were $2,268 ($9,436 for IBS-D patients vs. $7,169 for matched controls; P < 0.001) per patient/year, of which 78% were from medical costs and 22% were from prescription costs.

CONCLUSIONS

IBS-D was associated with a substantial burden in direct costs in this population. Compared with matched controls, IBS-D patients had greater medical service use and incurred significantly more annual all-cause health care costs, even after controlling for demographics and comorbidities. Incremental costs associated with IBS-D were primarily attributable to increased use of medical services rather than pharmacy costs.

DISCLOSURES

This study was funded by Allergan. The authors received no compensation related to the development of the manuscript. Buono and Andrae are employees of Allergan. Mathur is an employee of Axtria. Averitt was an employee of Axtria at the time this study was conducted. Data from this manuscript have previously been presented in poster format by Buono at the American College of Gastroenterology Annual Scientific Meeting; Honolulu, Hawaii; October 16-21, 2015. Mathur and Averitt were involved in conducting the study analyses. All authors were involved in the study design, interpretation of the data, and preparation of the manuscript. The authors take full responsibility for the scope, direction, and content of the manuscript and have approved the submitted manuscript.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    1 Allergan, Jersey City, New Jersey.

    ,

    2 Axtria, Berkeley Heights, New Jersey.

    ,

    2 Axtria, Berkeley Heights, New Jersey.

    1 Allergan, Jersey City, New Jersey.

    Source

    MeSH

    Abdominal Pain
    Adolescent
    Adult
    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Ambulatory Care
    Comorbidity
    Cost of Illness
    Delivery of Health Care
    Diarrhea
    Emergency Medical Services
    Female
    Health Care Costs
    Humans
    Insurance, Health
    Irritable Bowel Syndrome
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Office Visits
    Retrospective Studies
    Socioeconomic Factors
    United States
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    28345443

    Citation

    Buono, Jessica L., et al. "Economic Burden of Irritable Bowel Syndrome With Diarrhea: Retrospective Analysis of a U.S. Commercially Insured Population." Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy, vol. 23, no. 4, 2017, pp. 453-460.
    Buono JL, Mathur K, Averitt AJ, et al. Economic Burden of Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea: Retrospective Analysis of a U.S. Commercially Insured Population. J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2017;23(4):453-460.
    Buono, J. L., Mathur, K., Averitt, A. J., & Andrae, D. A. (2017). Economic Burden of Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea: Retrospective Analysis of a U.S. Commercially Insured Population. Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy, 23(4), pp. 453-460. doi:10.18553/jmcp.2016.16138.
    Buono JL, et al. Economic Burden of Irritable Bowel Syndrome With Diarrhea: Retrospective Analysis of a U.S. Commercially Insured Population. J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2017;23(4):453-460. PubMed PMID: 28345443.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Economic Burden of Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea: Retrospective Analysis of a U.S. Commercially Insured Population. AU - Buono,Jessica L, AU - Mathur,Kush, AU - Averitt,Amelia J, AU - Andrae,David A, Y1 - 2016/11/21/ PY - 2017/3/28/entrez PY - 2017/3/28/pubmed PY - 2017/8/10/medline SP - 453 EP - 460 JF - Journal of managed care & specialty pharmacy JO - J Manag Care Spec Pharm VL - 23 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: The economic burden associated with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) is not well understood. OBJECTIVES: To (a) evaluate total annual all-cause, gastrointestinal (GI)-related, and symptom-related (i.e., IBS, diarrhea, abdominal pain) health care resource use and costs among IBS-D patients in a U.S. commercially insured population and (b) estimate incremental all-cause health care costs of IBS-D patients versus matched controls. METHODS: Patients aged ≥ 18 years with 12 months of continuous medical and pharmacy benefit eligibility in 2013 were identified from the Truven Health MarketScan research database. The study sample included patients with ≥ 1 medical claim with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis code in any position for IBS (ICD-9-CM 564.1x) and either (a) ≥ 2 claims for diarrhea (ICD-9-CM 787.91, 564.5x) on different service dates in 2013, or (b) ≥ 1 claim for diarrhea plus ≥ 1 claim for abdominal pain (ICD-9-CM 789.0x) on different service dates in 2013, or (c) ≥ 1 claim for diarrhea plus ≥ 1 pharmacy claim for a symptom-related prescription on different service dates in 2013. Controls included patients with no claims for IBS, diarrhea, abdominal pain, or symptom-related prescriptions in 2013. Controls were randomly selected and matched with IBS-D patients in a 1:1 ratio based on age (± 4 years), gender, geographic location, and health plan type. All-cause health care resource utilization included medical and pharmacy claims for health care services associated with any condition. Total health care costs were defined as the sum of health plan-paid and patient-paid direct health care costs from prescriptions and medical services, including inpatient, emergency department (ED), and physician office visits, and other outpatient services. A total cost approach was used to assess all-cause, GI-related, and symptom-related health care costs for IBS-D patients. An incremental cost approach via generalized linear models was used to assess the excess all-cause costs attributable to IBS-D after adjusting for demographics and general and GI comorbidities. RESULTS: Of 39,306 patients (n = 19,653 each for IBS-D and matched controls) included, mean (± SD) age was 47 (± 17) years and 76.5% were female. Compared with controls, IBS-D patients had a significantly higher mean annual number of hospitalizations, ED visits, office visits, and monthly (30-day) prescription fills. Mean annual all-cause health care costs for IBS-D patients were $13,038, with over half (58.4%) attributable to office visits and other outpatient services (e.g., diagnostic tests and laboratory or radiology services), and remaining costs attributable to prescriptions (19.5%), inpatient admissions (13.6%), and ED visits (8.5%). GI-related ($3,817) and symptom-related ($1,693) costs were also primarily driven by other outpatient service costs. After adjusting for demographics and comorbidities, incremental annual all-cause costs associated with IBS-D were $2,268 ($9,436 for IBS-D patients vs. $7,169 for matched controls; P < 0.001) per patient/year, of which 78% were from medical costs and 22% were from prescription costs. CONCLUSIONS: IBS-D was associated with a substantial burden in direct costs in this population. Compared with matched controls, IBS-D patients had greater medical service use and incurred significantly more annual all-cause health care costs, even after controlling for demographics and comorbidities. Incremental costs associated with IBS-D were primarily attributable to increased use of medical services rather than pharmacy costs. DISCLOSURES: This study was funded by Allergan. The authors received no compensation related to the development of the manuscript. Buono and Andrae are employees of Allergan. Mathur is an employee of Axtria. Averitt was an employee of Axtria at the time this study was conducted. Data from this manuscript have previously been presented in poster format by Buono at the American College of Gastroenterology Annual Scientific Meeting; Honolulu, Hawaii; October 16-21, 2015. Mathur and Averitt were involved in conducting the study analyses. All authors were involved in the study design, interpretation of the data, and preparation of the manuscript. The authors take full responsibility for the scope, direction, and content of the manuscript and have approved the submitted manuscript. SN - 2376-1032 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28345443/Economic_Burden_of_Irritable_Bowel_Syndrome_with_Diarrhea:_Retrospective_Analysis_of_a_U_S__Commercially_Insured_Population_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.18553/jmcp.2016.16138 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -