Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Exploring synthetic heroin: Accounts of acetyl fentanyl use from a sample of dually diagnosed drug offenders.
Drug Alcohol Rev 2018; 37(1):121-127DA

Abstract

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS

Acetyl fentanyl, a fentanyl analogue emerging onto the recreational drug scene, has been responsible for numerous recent fatal overdoses in the USA, Europe and Russia. Studies reporting acetyl fentanyl use are presently limited to case studies and mortality reports. This study explores the nature of acetyl fentanyl use through the collection of first-hand qualitative data from users to inform public health and drug control policy responses.

DESIGN AND METHODS

A series of focus group interviews within a correctional setting-Delaware County (Ohio) Jail, USA. Participants were 102 individuals in one of two US Bureau of Justice Assistance Second Chance Act substance use treatment initiatives participating in at least one focus group session. Five of these individuals reported acetyl fentanyl use. Semi-structured qualitative focus group sessions queried subjects' drugs of choice and nature of drug use. Responses were explored through follow-up organic discourse.

RESULTS

Acetyl fentanyl users were generally unaware that they had administered the substance until after use (initially believing that they were administering heroin). They described the effects of acetyl fentanyl as stronger and qualitatively different from heroin. These individuals showed no interest in using acetyl fentanyl again describing it as unpleasant and more risky, both because of potency and the threat of a 'bad batch'.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

Acetyl fentanyl is reaching heroin users, some of which administer it unknowingly. Regulation of acetyl fentanyl is recommended in all countries as is increasing public awareness that the substance is distinct from and being sold as heroin. [Miller JM, Stogner JM, Miller BL, Blough S. Exploring synthetic heroin: Accounts of acetyl fentanyl use from a sample of dually diagnosed drug offenders. Drug Alcohol Rev 2018;37:121-127].

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, USA.Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology, University of North Carolina Charlotte, Charlotte, USA.Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, USA.School of Criminal Justice and Social Sciences, Tiffin University, Tiffin, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28349617

Citation

Miller, J Mitchell, et al. "Exploring Synthetic Heroin: Accounts of Acetyl Fentanyl Use From a Sample of Dually Diagnosed Drug Offenders." Drug and Alcohol Review, vol. 37, no. 1, 2018, pp. 121-127.
Miller JM, Stogner JM, Miller BL, et al. Exploring synthetic heroin: Accounts of acetyl fentanyl use from a sample of dually diagnosed drug offenders. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2018;37(1):121-127.
Miller, J. M., Stogner, J. M., Miller, B. L., & Blough, S. (2018). Exploring synthetic heroin: Accounts of acetyl fentanyl use from a sample of dually diagnosed drug offenders. Drug and Alcohol Review, 37(1), pp. 121-127. doi:10.1111/dar.12502.
Miller JM, et al. Exploring Synthetic Heroin: Accounts of Acetyl Fentanyl Use From a Sample of Dually Diagnosed Drug Offenders. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2018;37(1):121-127. PubMed PMID: 28349617.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Exploring synthetic heroin: Accounts of acetyl fentanyl use from a sample of dually diagnosed drug offenders. AU - Miller,J Mitchell, AU - Stogner,John M, AU - Miller,Bryan Lee, AU - Blough,Scott, Y1 - 2017/03/28/ PY - 2016/03/16/received PY - 2016/08/29/revised PY - 2016/09/11/accepted PY - 2017/3/30/pubmed PY - 2018/11/10/medline PY - 2017/3/29/entrez KW - China white KW - acetyl fentanyl KW - black shadow KW - desmethyl fentanyl KW - synthetic heroin SP - 121 EP - 127 JF - Drug and alcohol review JO - Drug Alcohol Rev VL - 37 IS - 1 N2 - INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Acetyl fentanyl, a fentanyl analogue emerging onto the recreational drug scene, has been responsible for numerous recent fatal overdoses in the USA, Europe and Russia. Studies reporting acetyl fentanyl use are presently limited to case studies and mortality reports. This study explores the nature of acetyl fentanyl use through the collection of first-hand qualitative data from users to inform public health and drug control policy responses. DESIGN AND METHODS: A series of focus group interviews within a correctional setting-Delaware County (Ohio) Jail, USA. Participants were 102 individuals in one of two US Bureau of Justice Assistance Second Chance Act substance use treatment initiatives participating in at least one focus group session. Five of these individuals reported acetyl fentanyl use. Semi-structured qualitative focus group sessions queried subjects' drugs of choice and nature of drug use. Responses were explored through follow-up organic discourse. RESULTS: Acetyl fentanyl users were generally unaware that they had administered the substance until after use (initially believing that they were administering heroin). They described the effects of acetyl fentanyl as stronger and qualitatively different from heroin. These individuals showed no interest in using acetyl fentanyl again describing it as unpleasant and more risky, both because of potency and the threat of a 'bad batch'. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Acetyl fentanyl is reaching heroin users, some of which administer it unknowingly. Regulation of acetyl fentanyl is recommended in all countries as is increasing public awareness that the substance is distinct from and being sold as heroin. [Miller JM, Stogner JM, Miller BL, Blough S. Exploring synthetic heroin: Accounts of acetyl fentanyl use from a sample of dually diagnosed drug offenders. Drug Alcohol Rev 2018;37:121-127]. SN - 1465-3362 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28349617/Exploring_synthetic_heroin:_Accounts_of_acetyl_fentanyl_use_from_a_sample_of_dually_diagnosed_drug_offenders L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/dar.12502 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -