Differential gene activation by glucocorticoids and progestins through the hormone regulatory element of mouse mammary tumor virus.Cell. 1988 May 06; 53(3):371-82.Cell
The hormone regulatory element (HRE) of mouse mammary tumor virus can mediate activation of an adjacent promoter by glucocorticoids and progestins. A detailed comparison of the DNA binding of receptors for both hormones using DNAase I footprinting and methylation protection detects clear differences in their interactions with the HRE region between positions -130 and -100. Binding studies and gene transfer experiments with a variety of mutants covering the entire HRE demonstrate differences in the relevance of the individual sequence motifs for induction by each hormone. The influence of changes in the angular orientation of receptor binding sites is also different for glucocorticoid and progesterone induction. In transfection experiments with mutated HREs, we find a functional cooperation between the receptor binding sites that does not correlate with variations in the in vitro affinity of the receptors for the corresponding DNA fragment.