Epidemiology and Molecular Basis of Resistance to Fluconazole Among Clinical Candida parapsilosis Isolates in Kuwait.Microb Drug Resist 2017; 23(8):966-972MD
Fluconazole resistance among clinical Candida parapsilosis isolates is an emerging problem in many countries, including Kuwait. Resistance to fluconazole is mediated by amino acid substitutions in ERG11 and/or by overexpression of efflux pumps MDR1 and CDR1. Clinical C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates (n = 442) were tested for susceptibility to fluconazole by Etest, Vitek II, and broth microdilution methods. ERG11 was analyzed from fluconazole-resistant, fluconazole-susceptible dose-dependent, and selected fluconazole-susceptible isolates. Of 442 C. parapsilosis isolates, 425, 2, and 15 were identified as susceptible, susceptible dose-dependent, and resistant to fluconazole, respectively. PCR sequencing of ERG11 identified Y132F mutation in 5 of 11 fluconazole-resistant isolates available for analysis. This mutation was absent in 46 fluconazole-susceptible and 2 fluconazole-susceptible dose-dependent isolates. A multiplex allele-specific PCR was developed for detection of Y132F mutation in ERG11, and results correlated perfectly with PCR sequencing data for ERG11 codon 132 for all isolates analyzed. Detection of resistance in 15 and reduced susceptibility in 2 among 442 C. parapsilosis isolates highlights emerging resistance to fluconazole in Kuwait. The Y132F mutation in ERG11 was found in 5 of 11 (45%) fluconazole-resistant isolates only. Detection of fluconazole resistance in C. parapsilosis will help in proper management of patients infected with this species.