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Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference.
Am J Clin Nutr 2017; 105(5):1148-1157AJ

Abstract

Background:

Adding long-chain n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to a rodent diet reduces fat mass and prevents the development of obesity, but evidence of a similar effect in humans is rather limited.

Objectives:

We investigated the associations between dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference in humans. Effect modification by the carbohydrate:protein ratio and glycemic index was also investigated.

Design:

A total of 29,152 participants included in the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort were followed. Dietary intake was assessed with the use of a validated 192-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Adipose tissue content of fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography in a random sample of the cohort (n = 1660). Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and 5 y later. Associations were investigated with the use of a linear regression model.

Results:

For high (1.22 g/d) compared with low (0.28 g/d) total n-3 PUFA intake, the difference in 5-y weight change was 147.6 g (95% CI: -42.3, 337.5 g); P-trend = 0.088. No associations between the individual n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid were observed. Intake of n-3 PUFAs was not associated with a 5-y change in waist circumference. For high (0.16%) compared with low (0.06%) adipose tissue content of EPA, the difference in 5-y weight change was -649.6 g (95% CI: -1254.2, -44.9 g); P-trend = 0.027. No associations between total n-3 PUFA, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid and 5-y weight change were observed. Adipose tissue content of n-3 PUFAs was not associated with 5-y change in waist circumference. No effect modification by carbohydrate:protein ratio or glycemic index was found.

Conclusion:

Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs were neither consistently nor appreciably associated with change in body weight or waist circumference.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Public Health, Section for Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; muj@ph.au.dk.National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, Bergen, Norway. Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.Unit of Clinical Biostatistics, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark.Department of Clinical Epidemiology (formerly Institute of Preventive Medicine), Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg University Hospitals-a part of Copenhagen University Hospital, The Capital Region, Copenhagen, Denmark.The Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark; and.The Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark; and.Department of Cardiology and.Department of Public Health, Section for Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark. Department of Clinical Epidemiology (formerly Institute of Preventive Medicine), Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg University Hospitals-a part of Copenhagen University Hospital, The Capital Region, Copenhagen, Denmark. Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research and Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.Department of Public Health, Section for Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark. Department of Cardiology and.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28356276

Citation

Jakobsen, Marianne U., et al. "Dietary Intake and Adipose Tissue Content of Long-chain N-3 PUFAs and Subsequent 5-y Change in Body Weight and Waist Circumference." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 105, no. 5, 2017, pp. 1148-1157.
Jakobsen MU, Madsen L, Skjøth F, et al. Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;105(5):1148-1157.
Jakobsen, M. U., Madsen, L., Skjøth, F., Berentzen, T. L., Halkjær, J., Tjønneland, A., ... Overvad, K. (2017). Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 105(5), pp. 1148-1157. doi:10.3945/ajcn.116.140079.
Jakobsen MU, et al. Dietary Intake and Adipose Tissue Content of Long-chain N-3 PUFAs and Subsequent 5-y Change in Body Weight and Waist Circumference. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;105(5):1148-1157. PubMed PMID: 28356276.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference. AU - Jakobsen,Marianne U, AU - Madsen,Lise, AU - Skjøth,Flemming, AU - Berentzen,Tina L, AU - Halkjær,Jytte, AU - Tjønneland,Anne, AU - Schmidt,Erik B, AU - Sørensen,Thorkild Ia, AU - Kristiansen,Karsten, AU - Overvad,Kim, Y1 - 2017/03/29/ PY - 2016/07/01/received PY - 2017/02/23/accepted PY - 2017/3/31/pubmed PY - 2017/7/20/medline PY - 2017/3/31/entrez KW - adipose tissue KW - carbohydrates KW - cohort study KW - dietary intake KW - follow-up study KW - obesity KW - omega-3 fatty acids KW - proteins SP - 1148 EP - 1157 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 105 IS - 5 N2 - Background: Adding long-chain n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to a rodent diet reduces fat mass and prevents the development of obesity, but evidence of a similar effect in humans is rather limited.Objectives: We investigated the associations between dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference in humans. Effect modification by the carbohydrate:protein ratio and glycemic index was also investigated.Design: A total of 29,152 participants included in the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort were followed. Dietary intake was assessed with the use of a validated 192-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Adipose tissue content of fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography in a random sample of the cohort (n = 1660). Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and 5 y later. Associations were investigated with the use of a linear regression model.Results: For high (1.22 g/d) compared with low (0.28 g/d) total n-3 PUFA intake, the difference in 5-y weight change was 147.6 g (95% CI: -42.3, 337.5 g); P-trend = 0.088. No associations between the individual n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid were observed. Intake of n-3 PUFAs was not associated with a 5-y change in waist circumference. For high (0.16%) compared with low (0.06%) adipose tissue content of EPA, the difference in 5-y weight change was -649.6 g (95% CI: -1254.2, -44.9 g); P-trend = 0.027. No associations between total n-3 PUFA, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid and 5-y weight change were observed. Adipose tissue content of n-3 PUFAs was not associated with 5-y change in waist circumference. No effect modification by carbohydrate:protein ratio or glycemic index was found.Conclusion: Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs were neither consistently nor appreciably associated with change in body weight or waist circumference. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28356276/Dietary_intake_and_adipose_tissue_content_of_long_chain_n_3_PUFAs_and_subsequent_5_y_change_in_body_weight_and_waist_circumference_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.116.140079 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -