A randomised, double-blind, phase 3 study comparing the efficacy and safety of ceftazidime/avibactam plus metronidazole versus meropenem for complicated intra-abdominal infections in hospitalised adults in Asia.Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2017 05; 49(5):579-588.IJ
Ceftazidime/avibactam comprises the broad-spectrum cephalosporin ceftazidime and the non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam. This phase 3, randomised, double-blind study (NCT01726023) assessed the efficacy and safety of ceftazidime/avibactam plus metronidazole compared with meropenem in patients with complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAI) in Asian countries. Subjects aged 18-90 years and hospitalised with cIAI requiring surgical intervention were randomised 1:1 to receive every 8 h either: ceftazidime/avibactam (2000/500 mg, 2-h infusion) followed by metronidazole (500 mg, 60-min infusion); or meropenem (1000 mg, 30-min infusion). Non-inferiority of ceftazidime/avibactam plus metronidazole to meropenem was concluded if the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the between-group difference in clinical cure rate was greater than -12.5% at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit (28-35 days after randomisation) in the clinically evaluable (CE) population. Safety was also evaluated. Of 441 subjects randomised, 432 received at least one dose of study medication (ceftazidime/avibactam plus metronidazole, n = 215; meropenem, n = 217). In the CE population at the TOC visit, non-inferiority of ceftazidime/avibactam plus metronidazole to meropenem was demonstrated, with clinical cure reported for 93.8% (166/177) and 94.0% (173/184) of subjects, respectively (between-group difference, -0.2, 95% CI -5.53 to 4.97). The clinical cure rate with ceftazidime/avibactam plus metronidazole was comparable in subjects with ceftazidime-non-susceptible and ceftazidime-susceptible isolates (95.7% vs. 92.1%, respectively). Adverse events were similar between the study groups. Ceftazidime/avibactam plus metronidazole was non-inferior to meropenem in the treatment of cIAIs in Asian populations and was effective against ceftazidime-non-susceptible pathogens. No new safety concerns were identified.