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Dietary and Lifestyle Risk Factors Associated with Incident Kidney Stones in Men and Women.
J Urol 2017; 198(4):858-863JU

Abstract

PURPOSE

Several dietary and lifestyle factors are associated with a higher risk of kidney stones. We estimated the population attributable fraction and the number needed to prevent for modifiable risk factors, including body mass index, fluid intake, DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) style diet, dietary calcium intake and sugar sweetened beverage intake.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

We used data on the HPFS (Health Professionals Follow-Up Study) cohort and the NHS (Nurses' Health Study) I and II cohorts. Information was obtained from validated questionnaires. Poisson regression models adjusted for potential confounders were used to estimate the association of each risk factor with the development of incident kidney stones and calculate the population attributable fraction and the number needed to prevent.

RESULTS

The study included 192,126 participants who contributed a total of 3,259,313 person-years of followup, during which an incident kidney stone developed in 6,449 participants. All modifiable risk factors were independently associated with incident stones in each cohort. The population attributable fraction ranged from 4.4% for a higher intake of sugar sweetened beverages to 26.0% for a lower fluid intake. The population attributable fraction for all 5 risk factors combined was 57.0% in HPFS, 55.2% in NHS I and 55.1% in NHS II. The number needed to prevent during 10 years ranged from 67 for lower fluid intake to 556 for lower dietary calcium intake.

CONCLUSIONS

Five modifiable risk factors accounted for more than 50% of incident kidney stones in 3 large prospective cohorts. Assuming a causal relation, our estimates suggest that preventive measures aimed at reducing those factors could substantially decrease the burden of kidney stones in the general population.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Nephrology, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy. Electronic address: pietromanuel.ferraro@unicatt.it.Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Division of Nephrology and Transplantation, Maine Medical Center, Portland, Oregon.Division of Nephrology, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy.Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28365271

Citation

Ferraro, Pietro Manuel, et al. "Dietary and Lifestyle Risk Factors Associated With Incident Kidney Stones in Men and Women." The Journal of Urology, vol. 198, no. 4, 2017, pp. 858-863.
Ferraro PM, Taylor EN, Gambaro G, et al. Dietary and Lifestyle Risk Factors Associated with Incident Kidney Stones in Men and Women. J Urol. 2017;198(4):858-863.
Ferraro, P. M., Taylor, E. N., Gambaro, G., & Curhan, G. C. (2017). Dietary and Lifestyle Risk Factors Associated with Incident Kidney Stones in Men and Women. The Journal of Urology, 198(4), pp. 858-863. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2017.03.124.
Ferraro PM, et al. Dietary and Lifestyle Risk Factors Associated With Incident Kidney Stones in Men and Women. J Urol. 2017;198(4):858-863. PubMed PMID: 28365271.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary and Lifestyle Risk Factors Associated with Incident Kidney Stones in Men and Women. AU - Ferraro,Pietro Manuel, AU - Taylor,Eric N, AU - Gambaro,Giovanni, AU - Curhan,Gary C, Y1 - 2017/03/30/ PY - 2017/05/02/accepted PY - 2017/4/4/pubmed PY - 2019/4/16/medline PY - 2017/4/3/entrez KW - diet, food, and nutrition KW - kidney calculi KW - life style KW - risk factors KW - risk reduction behavior SP - 858 EP - 863 JF - The Journal of urology JO - J. Urol. VL - 198 IS - 4 N2 - PURPOSE: Several dietary and lifestyle factors are associated with a higher risk of kidney stones. We estimated the population attributable fraction and the number needed to prevent for modifiable risk factors, including body mass index, fluid intake, DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) style diet, dietary calcium intake and sugar sweetened beverage intake. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used data on the HPFS (Health Professionals Follow-Up Study) cohort and the NHS (Nurses' Health Study) I and II cohorts. Information was obtained from validated questionnaires. Poisson regression models adjusted for potential confounders were used to estimate the association of each risk factor with the development of incident kidney stones and calculate the population attributable fraction and the number needed to prevent. RESULTS: The study included 192,126 participants who contributed a total of 3,259,313 person-years of followup, during which an incident kidney stone developed in 6,449 participants. All modifiable risk factors were independently associated with incident stones in each cohort. The population attributable fraction ranged from 4.4% for a higher intake of sugar sweetened beverages to 26.0% for a lower fluid intake. The population attributable fraction for all 5 risk factors combined was 57.0% in HPFS, 55.2% in NHS I and 55.1% in NHS II. The number needed to prevent during 10 years ranged from 67 for lower fluid intake to 556 for lower dietary calcium intake. CONCLUSIONS: Five modifiable risk factors accounted for more than 50% of incident kidney stones in 3 large prospective cohorts. Assuming a causal relation, our estimates suggest that preventive measures aimed at reducing those factors could substantially decrease the burden of kidney stones in the general population. SN - 1527-3792 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28365271/Dietary_and_Lifestyle_Risk_Factors_Associated_with_Incident_Kidney_Stones_in_Men_and_Women_ L2 - https://www.jurology.com/doi/full/10.1016/j.juro.2017.03.124?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -