Cost-effectiveness Analysis for Genotyping before Allopurinol Treatment to Prevent Severe Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions.J Rheumatol. 2017 06; 44(6):835-843.JR
Patients with an HLA-B*58:01 allele have an increased risk of developing severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCAR) when treated with allopurinol. Although one-off pharmacogenetic testing may prevent life-threatening adverse drug reactions, testing prior to allopurinol initiation incurs additional costs. The study objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of HLA-B*58:01 screening compared with using other available urate-lowering agents (ULA).
A decision-analytical model was used to compare direct medical costs and effectiveness [including lifetime saved, quality-adjusted life-yrs (QALY) gained] in treating new patients with the following options: (1) genetic screening followed by allopurinol prescribing for noncarriers of HLA-B*58:01, (2) prescribing benzbromarone without screening, (3) prescribing febuxostat without screening, and (4) prescribing allopurinol without screening. A 1-year time frame and third-party payer perspective were modeled for both the entire cohort (base-case) and for the subgroup of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of genetic screening prior to ULA therapy was estimated as New Taiwan (NT) $234,610 (US$7508) per QALY gained in the base-case cohort. For patients with CKD, it was estimated as NT$230,925 (US$7390) per QALY. The study results were sensitive to the probability of benzbromarone/febuxostat-related hypersensitivity, and a negative predicted value of genotyping.
HLA-B*58:01 screening gave good value for money in preventing allopurinol-induced SCAR in patients indicated for ULA therapy. In addition to the costs of genotyping, it is important to monitor ULA safety closely in adopting HLA-B*58:01 screening in practice.