Milk and dairy consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
With a growing number of prospective cohort studies, an updated dose-response meta-analysis of milk and dairy products with all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD) or cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been conducted. PubMed, Embase and Scopus were searched for articles published up to September 2016. Random-effect meta-analyses with summarised dose-response data were performed for total (high-fat/low-fat) dairy, milk, fermented dairy, cheese and yogurt. Non-linear associations were investigated using the spine models and heterogeneity by subgroup analyses. A total of 29 cohort studies were available for meta-analysis, with 938,465 participants and 93,158 mortality, 28,419 CHD and 25,416 CVD cases. No associations were found for total (high-fat/low-fat) dairy, and milk with the health outcomes of mortality, CHD or CVD. Inverse associations were found between total fermented dairy (included sour milk products, cheese or yogurt; per 20 g/day) with mortality (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99; I2 = 94.4%) and CVD risk (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99; I2 = 87.5%). Further analyses of individual fermented dairy of cheese and yogurt showed cheese to have a 2% lower risk of CVD (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.95-1.00; I2 = 82.6%) per 10 g/day, but not yogurt. All of these marginally inverse associations of totally fermented dairy and cheese were attenuated in sensitivity analyses by removing one large Swedish study. This meta-analysis combining data from 29 prospective cohort studies demonstrated neutral associations between dairy products and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. For future studies it is important to investigate in more detail how dairy products can be replaced by other foods.
Institute for Food, Nutrition and Health, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6AR, UK. email@example.com.,
Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, 2200, Copenhagen, Denmark.,
Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition, Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6AP, UK.,
Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University and Research, 6708 WE, Wageningen, The Netherlands.,
Institute for Food, Nutrition and Health, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6AR, UK.
Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University and Research, 6708 WE, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Pub Type(s)Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't