Sulfated Hetero-Polysaccharides Protect SH-SY5Y Cells from H₂O₂-Induced Apoptosis by Affecting the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway.Mar Drugs. 2017 Apr 06; 15(4)MD
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies suggest that sulfated hetero-polysaccharides (UF) protect against developing PD. However, the detailed mechanisms of how UF suppress neuronal death have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the cytoprotective mechanisms of UF using human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells as a PD model. UF prevented H₂O₂-induced apoptotic cell death in SH-SY5Y cells in a dose-dependent manner. An examination of the PI3K/Akt upstream pathway revealed that UF-pretreated cells showed a decreased relative density of Akt, PI3K, and TrkA, and increased the phosphorylation of Akt, PI3K, and NGF; the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, partially prevented this effect. An examination of the PI3K/Akt downstream pathway revealed the increased expression of the apoptosis-associated markers Bax, p53, CytC, and GSK3β, and the decreased expression of Bcl-2 in UF-treated cells. UF-treated cells also exhibited decreased caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 activities, which induced cell apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that UF affect the PI3K/Akt pathway, as well as downstream signaling. Therefore, the UF-mediated activation of PI3K/Akt could provide a new potential therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative diseases associated with oxidative injury. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the critical roles of UF in the treatment of PD.