Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) rescues insulin-mediated impairment in the 5XFAD model of Alzheimer's disease.Sci Rep 2017; 7(1):683SR
A hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the accumulation of oligomeric amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, which may be primarily responsible for neuronal dysfunction. Insulin signaling provides a defense mechanism against oligomer-induced neuronal loss. We previously described the neuroprotective role of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) in decreasing the formation of Aβ oligomers. In the present study, we examined the role of MMP-9 on the insulin survival pathway in primary hippocampal cultures and hippocampal cell extracts from 3 month-old wild type, AD (5XFAD), MMP-9-overexpressing (TgMMP-9), and double transgenic mice (5XFAD/TgMMP-9). The data demonstrate that the insulin pathway was compromised in samples from 5XFAD mice, when compared to the wild type and TgMMP-9. This was due to enhanced phosphorylation of IRS1 at Serine 636 (pIRS1-Ser636), which renders IRS1 inactive and prevents insulin-mediated signaling. In 5XFAD/TgMMP-9 samples, the insulin survival pathway was rescued through enhanced activation by phosphorylation of IRS1 at Tyrosine 465 (pIRS1-Tyr465), downstream increased phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3β, and decreased phosphorylation of JNK kinase. Oligomeric Aβ levels decreased and BDNF levels increased in 5XFAD/TgMMP-9 mice, compared to 5XFAD mice. Our findings indicate that overexpression of MMP-9 rescued insulin survival signaling in vitro and in early stages in the 5XFAD model of AD.