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A low technology emanator treated with the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin confers long term protection against outdoor biting vectors of lymphatic filariasis, arboviruses and malaria.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 04; 11(4):e0005455.PN

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The vapor phase of the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin incapacitates mosquitoes and prevents them from feeding. Although existing emanator products for delivering volatile pyrethroids protect against outdoor mosquito bites, they are too short-lived to be practical or affordable for routine use in low-income settings. New transfluthrin emanators, comprised simply of treated hessian fabric strips, have recently proven highly protective against outdoor-biting vectors of lymphatic filariasis, arboviruses and malaria, but their full protective lifespan, minimum dose requirements, and range of protection have not previously been assessed.

METHODOLOGY

The effects of transfluthrin-treated hessian strips upon mosquito biting exposure of users and nearby non-users, as well as dependence of protection upon treatment dose, were measured outdoors in rural Tanzania using human landing catches (HLC).

PRINCIPAL FINDINGS

Strips treated with 10ml of transfluthrin prevented at least three quarters (p < 0.001) of outdoor bites by Anopheles arabiensis, Culex spp. and Mansonia spp. mosquitoes, and >90% protection against bites on warmer nights with higher evaporation rates, for at least one year. Strips treated with this high dose also reduced biting exposure of non-users at a distance of up to 5m from the strips for An. arabiensis (p < 0.001) and up to 2m for Mansonia spp. (p = 0.008), but provided no protection to non-users against Culex spp. No evidence of increased risk for non-users, caused by diversion of mosquitoes to unprotected individuals, was found at any distance within an 80m radius. A dose of only 1ml provided equivalent protection to the 10ml dose against An. arabiensis, Culex spp. and Mansonia spp. mosquitoes over 6 months (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE

Transfluthrin-treated hessian emanators provide safe, affordable, long-term protection against several different pathogen-transmitting mosquito taxa that attack humans outdoors, where they are usually active and cannot be protected by bed nets or residual sprays with conventional, solid-phase insecticides.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Ifakara Health Institute, Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Coordination Office, Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania. US National Research Council, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine, Washington, D.C., United States of America.Ifakara Health Institute, Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Coordination Office, Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania.Ifakara Health Institute, Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Coordination Office, Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania.Bayer CropScience Aktiengesellschaft, Monheim, Germany.Innovative Vector Control Consortium, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom.Ifakara Health Institute, Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Thematic Group, Coordination Office, Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania. Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Vector Biology Department, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28388682

Citation

Ogoma, Sheila B., et al. "A Low Technology Emanator Treated With the Volatile Pyrethroid Transfluthrin Confers Long Term Protection Against Outdoor Biting Vectors of Lymphatic Filariasis, Arboviruses and Malaria." PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 11, no. 4, 2017, pp. e0005455.
Ogoma SB, Mmando AS, Swai JK, et al. A low technology emanator treated with the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin confers long term protection against outdoor biting vectors of lymphatic filariasis, arboviruses and malaria. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11(4):e0005455.
Ogoma, S. B., Mmando, A. S., Swai, J. K., Horstmann, S., Malone, D., & Killeen, G. F. (2017). A low technology emanator treated with the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin confers long term protection against outdoor biting vectors of lymphatic filariasis, arboviruses and malaria. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 11(4), e0005455. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005455
Ogoma SB, et al. A Low Technology Emanator Treated With the Volatile Pyrethroid Transfluthrin Confers Long Term Protection Against Outdoor Biting Vectors of Lymphatic Filariasis, Arboviruses and Malaria. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11(4):e0005455. PubMed PMID: 28388682.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A low technology emanator treated with the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin confers long term protection against outdoor biting vectors of lymphatic filariasis, arboviruses and malaria. AU - Ogoma,Sheila B, AU - Mmando,Arnold S, AU - Swai,Johnson K, AU - Horstmann,Sebastian, AU - Malone,David, AU - Killeen,Gerry F, Y1 - 2017/04/07/ PY - 2016/10/12/received PY - 2017/03/03/accepted PY - 2017/4/8/entrez PY - 2017/4/8/pubmed PY - 2017/6/29/medline SP - e0005455 EP - e0005455 JF - PLoS neglected tropical diseases JO - PLoS Negl Trop Dis VL - 11 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: The vapor phase of the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin incapacitates mosquitoes and prevents them from feeding. Although existing emanator products for delivering volatile pyrethroids protect against outdoor mosquito bites, they are too short-lived to be practical or affordable for routine use in low-income settings. New transfluthrin emanators, comprised simply of treated hessian fabric strips, have recently proven highly protective against outdoor-biting vectors of lymphatic filariasis, arboviruses and malaria, but their full protective lifespan, minimum dose requirements, and range of protection have not previously been assessed. METHODOLOGY: The effects of transfluthrin-treated hessian strips upon mosquito biting exposure of users and nearby non-users, as well as dependence of protection upon treatment dose, were measured outdoors in rural Tanzania using human landing catches (HLC). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Strips treated with 10ml of transfluthrin prevented at least three quarters (p < 0.001) of outdoor bites by Anopheles arabiensis, Culex spp. and Mansonia spp. mosquitoes, and >90% protection against bites on warmer nights with higher evaporation rates, for at least one year. Strips treated with this high dose also reduced biting exposure of non-users at a distance of up to 5m from the strips for An. arabiensis (p < 0.001) and up to 2m for Mansonia spp. (p = 0.008), but provided no protection to non-users against Culex spp. No evidence of increased risk for non-users, caused by diversion of mosquitoes to unprotected individuals, was found at any distance within an 80m radius. A dose of only 1ml provided equivalent protection to the 10ml dose against An. arabiensis, Culex spp. and Mansonia spp. mosquitoes over 6 months (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Transfluthrin-treated hessian emanators provide safe, affordable, long-term protection against several different pathogen-transmitting mosquito taxa that attack humans outdoors, where they are usually active and cannot be protected by bed nets or residual sprays with conventional, solid-phase insecticides. SN - 1935-2735 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28388682/A_low_technology_emanator_treated_with_the_volatile_pyrethroid_transfluthrin_confers_long_term_protection_against_outdoor_biting_vectors_of_lymphatic_filariasis_arboviruses_and_malaria_ L2 - https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005455 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -