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Exploring Manganese Fractionation Using a Sequential Extraction Method to Evaluate Welders' Gas Metal Arc Welding Exposures during Heavy Equipment Manufacturing.
Ann Work Expo Health. 2017 01 01; 61(1):123-134.AW

Abstract

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has conducted an occupational exposure assessment study of manganese (Mn) in welding fume at three factories where heavy equipment was manufactured. The objective of this study was to evaluate exposures to different Mn fractions using a sequential extraction procedure. One hundred nine worker-days were monitored for either total or respirable Mn during gas metal arc welding. The samples were analyzed using an experimental method to separate different Mn fractions based on selective chemical solubility. The full-shift total particle size Mn time-weighted average (TWA) breathing zone concentrations ranged 0.38-26 for soluble Mn in a mild ammonium acetate solution; 3.2-170 for Mn0,2+ in acetic acid; 3.1-290 for Mn3+,4+ in hydroxylamine-hydrochloride; and non-detectable (ND)-130 µg m-3 for insoluble Mn fractions in hydrochloric and nitric acid. The summation of all the total particulate Mn TWA fractions yielded results that ranged from 6.9 to 610 µg m-3. The range of respirable size Mn TWA concentrations were 0.33-21 for soluble Mn; 15-140 for Mn0,2+; 14-170 for Mn3+,4+; 5.3-230 for insoluble Mn; and 36-530 µg m-3 for Mn (sum of fractions). Total particulate TWA GM concentrations of the Mn (sum) were 53 (GSD = 2.5), 150 (GSD = 1.7), and 120 (GSD = 1.8) µg m-3 for the three separate factories. Although all of the workers' exposures were measured below the OSHA regulatory permissible exposure limit and NIOSH recommended exposure limit for Mn, 70 welders' exposures exceeded the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values® for total Mn (100 µg m-3) and 29 exceeded the recently adopted respirable Mn TLV (20 µg m-3). This study shows that a welding fume exposure control and management program is warranted for Mn, which includes improved exhaust ventilation and may necessitate the use of respiratory protection, especially for welding parts that impede air circulation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Industrywide Studies Branch, Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations and Field Studies, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH, USA.Chemical Exposure and Monitoring Branch, Division of Applied Research and Technology, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH, USA.Industrywide Studies Branch, Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations and Field Studies, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH, USA.Division of Applied Research and Technology, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Evaluation Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28395311

Citation

Hanley, Kevin W., et al. "Exploring Manganese Fractionation Using a Sequential Extraction Method to Evaluate Welders' Gas Metal Arc Welding Exposures During Heavy Equipment Manufacturing." Annals of Work Exposures and Health, vol. 61, no. 1, 2017, pp. 123-134.
Hanley KW, Andrews R, Bertke S, et al. Exploring Manganese Fractionation Using a Sequential Extraction Method to Evaluate Welders' Gas Metal Arc Welding Exposures during Heavy Equipment Manufacturing. Ann Work Expo Health. 2017;61(1):123-134.
Hanley, K. W., Andrews, R., Bertke, S., & Ashley, K. (2017). Exploring Manganese Fractionation Using a Sequential Extraction Method to Evaluate Welders' Gas Metal Arc Welding Exposures during Heavy Equipment Manufacturing. Annals of Work Exposures and Health, 61(1), 123-134. https://doi.org/10.1093/annweh/wxw005
Hanley KW, et al. Exploring Manganese Fractionation Using a Sequential Extraction Method to Evaluate Welders' Gas Metal Arc Welding Exposures During Heavy Equipment Manufacturing. Ann Work Expo Health. 2017 01 1;61(1):123-134. PubMed PMID: 28395311.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Exploring Manganese Fractionation Using a Sequential Extraction Method to Evaluate Welders' Gas Metal Arc Welding Exposures during Heavy Equipment Manufacturing. AU - Hanley,Kevin W, AU - Andrews,Ronnee, AU - Bertke,Steven, AU - Ashley,Kevin, PY - 2016/03/24/received PY - 2016/11/08/accepted PY - 2017/4/11/entrez PY - 2017/4/11/pubmed PY - 2017/11/29/medline KW - GMAW KW - MIG KW - Mn KW - metal inert gas KW - oxidation state KW - solubility SP - 123 EP - 134 JF - Annals of work exposures and health JO - Ann Work Expo Health VL - 61 IS - 1 N2 - The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has conducted an occupational exposure assessment study of manganese (Mn) in welding fume at three factories where heavy equipment was manufactured. The objective of this study was to evaluate exposures to different Mn fractions using a sequential extraction procedure. One hundred nine worker-days were monitored for either total or respirable Mn during gas metal arc welding. The samples were analyzed using an experimental method to separate different Mn fractions based on selective chemical solubility. The full-shift total particle size Mn time-weighted average (TWA) breathing zone concentrations ranged 0.38-26 for soluble Mn in a mild ammonium acetate solution; 3.2-170 for Mn0,2+ in acetic acid; 3.1-290 for Mn3+,4+ in hydroxylamine-hydrochloride; and non-detectable (ND)-130 µg m-3 for insoluble Mn fractions in hydrochloric and nitric acid. The summation of all the total particulate Mn TWA fractions yielded results that ranged from 6.9 to 610 µg m-3. The range of respirable size Mn TWA concentrations were 0.33-21 for soluble Mn; 15-140 for Mn0,2+; 14-170 for Mn3+,4+; 5.3-230 for insoluble Mn; and 36-530 µg m-3 for Mn (sum of fractions). Total particulate TWA GM concentrations of the Mn (sum) were 53 (GSD = 2.5), 150 (GSD = 1.7), and 120 (GSD = 1.8) µg m-3 for the three separate factories. Although all of the workers' exposures were measured below the OSHA regulatory permissible exposure limit and NIOSH recommended exposure limit for Mn, 70 welders' exposures exceeded the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values® for total Mn (100 µg m-3) and 29 exceeded the recently adopted respirable Mn TLV (20 µg m-3). This study shows that a welding fume exposure control and management program is warranted for Mn, which includes improved exhaust ventilation and may necessitate the use of respiratory protection, especially for welding parts that impede air circulation. SN - 2398-7316 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28395311/Exploring_Manganese_Fractionation_Using_a_Sequential_Extraction_Method_to_Evaluate_Welders'_Gas_Metal_Arc_Welding_Exposures_during_Heavy_Equipment_Manufacturing_ L2 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/28395311/ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -