Antimicrobial Efficacy of Cinnamaldehyde Against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in Carrot Juice and Mixed Berry Juice Held at 4°C and 12°C.Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2017 05; 14(5):302-307.FP
The effectiveness of cinnamaldehyde for inactivating Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in carrot juice (CRJ) and mixed berry juice (MBJ) was investigated. Brain heart infusion broth (BHI), CRJ, and MBJ, with concentrations of added cinnamaldehyde ranging from 0.15 to 1.5 μL/mL, 0.25 to 2.0 μL/mL, and 0.25 to 1.5 μL/mL, respectively, were each inoculated with a 5-strain mixture of Salmonella enterica or Escherichia coli O157:H7 to give an initial viable count of 5.07 log10 colony-forming units/mL. Inoculated BHI or juices without cinnamaldehyde served as controls. Growth of the pathogens in BHI (35°C) was monitored by taking absorbance readings (optical density [OD] 600 nm) for 24 h. The inoculated juices were held at 4°C or 12°C for 24 h, and numbers of viable pathogens were determined at 0, 2, 4, 8, and 24 h by plating samples on selective agar followed by incubation (35°C) and counting bacterial colonies at 48 h. The minimum inhibitory concentration of cinnamaldehyde for both pathogens in BHI was 0.25 μL/mL. The pathogens were more sensitive to cinnamaldehyde in MBJ compared with CRJ, irrespective of storage temperature (p < 0.05). At 4°C, cinnamaldehyde (1.5 μL/mL) completely inactivated S. enterica and E. coli in MBJ (negative by enrichment) within 2 h and 8 h, respectively; whereas both pathogens were detected in CRJ (4°C; with 2.0 μL/mL cinnamaldehyde) at 8 and 24 h. At 12°C, S. enterica and E. coli were undetected in MBJ (1.5 μL/mL cinnamaldehyde) within 2 and 4 h, respectively; however, in CRJ (12°C; 2.0 μL/mL cinnamaldehyde), complete inactivation of S. enterica and E. coli occurred within 4 and 24 h, respectively. Cinnamaldehyde is an effective antimicrobial from natural sources that can be used for inactivating bacterial pathogens in fruit and vegetable juices to enhance microbial safety of these nutritious food products.