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Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda, its associated risk factors and relationship to ANC services attendance: a population-based study.
BMJ Open. 2017 02 22; 7(2):e013155.BO

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To investigate the prevalence of four forms of intimate partner violence during pregnancy in Rwandan women, associated sociodemographic and psychosocial factors and relationship to antenatal care service usage.

DESIGN

This was a cross-sectional population-based study conducted in the Northern province of Rwanda and in Kigali city.

PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS

A total of 921 women who gave birth within the past 13 months were included. Villages in the study area were selected using a multistage random sampling technique and community health workers helped in identifying eligible participants. Clinical psychologists, nurses or midwives carried out face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess associations.

RESULTS

The prevalence rates of physical, sexual, psychological violence and controlling behaviour during pregnancy were 10.2% (95% CI 8.3 to 12.2), 9.7% (95% CI 7.8 to 11.6), 17.0% (95% CI 14.6 to 19.4) and 20.0% (95% CI 17.4 to 22.6), respectively. Usage of antenatal care services was less common among women who reported controlling behaviour (OR) 1.93 (95% CI 1.34 to 2.79). No statistically significant associations between physical, psychological and sexual violence and antenatal care usage were found. Low socioeconomic status was associated with physical violence exposure (OR) 2.27 (95% CI 1.29 to 3.98). Also, young age, living in urban areas and poor social support were statistically significant in their associations with violence exposure during pregnancy.

CONCLUSIONS

Intimate partner violence inquiry should be included in the standard antenatal care services package and professionals should be trained in giving support, advice and care to those exposed. Gender-based violence is criminalised behaviour in Rwanda; existing policies and laws must be followed and awareness raised in society for preventive purposes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Rwanda, Rwanda. Section of Epidemiology and Social Medicine (EPSO), Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University Gothenburg, Sweden.Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Umeå University, Sweden.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Rwanda, Rwanda.Section of Epidemiology and Social Medicine (EPSO), Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University Gothenburg, Sweden.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28399509

Citation

Rurangirwa, Akashi Andrew, et al. "Intimate Partner Violence Among Pregnant Women in Rwanda, Its Associated Risk Factors and Relationship to ANC Services Attendance: a Population-based Study." BMJ Open, vol. 7, no. 2, 2017, pp. e013155.
Rurangirwa AA, Mogren I, Ntaganira J, et al. Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda, its associated risk factors and relationship to ANC services attendance: a population-based study. BMJ Open. 2017;7(2):e013155.
Rurangirwa, A. A., Mogren, I., Ntaganira, J., & Krantz, G. (2017). Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda, its associated risk factors and relationship to ANC services attendance: a population-based study. BMJ Open, 7(2), e013155. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013155
Rurangirwa AA, et al. Intimate Partner Violence Among Pregnant Women in Rwanda, Its Associated Risk Factors and Relationship to ANC Services Attendance: a Population-based Study. BMJ Open. 2017 02 22;7(2):e013155. PubMed PMID: 28399509.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda, its associated risk factors and relationship to ANC services attendance: a population-based study. AU - Rurangirwa,Akashi Andrew, AU - Mogren,Ingrid, AU - Ntaganira,Joseph, AU - Krantz,Gunilla, Y1 - 2017/02/22/ PY - 2017/4/12/entrez PY - 2017/4/12/pubmed PY - 2017/12/29/medline KW - SOCIAL MEDICINE SP - e013155 EP - e013155 JF - BMJ open JO - BMJ Open VL - 7 IS - 2 N2 - OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of four forms of intimate partner violence during pregnancy in Rwandan women, associated sociodemographic and psychosocial factors and relationship to antenatal care service usage. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional population-based study conducted in the Northern province of Rwanda and in Kigali city. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: A total of 921 women who gave birth within the past 13 months were included. Villages in the study area were selected using a multistage random sampling technique and community health workers helped in identifying eligible participants. Clinical psychologists, nurses or midwives carried out face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess associations. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of physical, sexual, psychological violence and controlling behaviour during pregnancy were 10.2% (95% CI 8.3 to 12.2), 9.7% (95% CI 7.8 to 11.6), 17.0% (95% CI 14.6 to 19.4) and 20.0% (95% CI 17.4 to 22.6), respectively. Usage of antenatal care services was less common among women who reported controlling behaviour (OR) 1.93 (95% CI 1.34 to 2.79). No statistically significant associations between physical, psychological and sexual violence and antenatal care usage were found. Low socioeconomic status was associated with physical violence exposure (OR) 2.27 (95% CI 1.29 to 3.98). Also, young age, living in urban areas and poor social support were statistically significant in their associations with violence exposure during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Intimate partner violence inquiry should be included in the standard antenatal care services package and professionals should be trained in giving support, advice and care to those exposed. Gender-based violence is criminalised behaviour in Rwanda; existing policies and laws must be followed and awareness raised in society for preventive purposes. SN - 2044-6055 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28399509/Intimate_partner_violence_among_pregnant_women_in_Rwanda_its_associated_risk_factors_and_relationship_to_ANC_services_attendance:_a_population_based_study_ L2 - https://bmjopen.bmj.com/lookup/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=28399509 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -