High mortality rates after both open surgical and endovascular thoracic aortic interventions in patients with end-stage renal disease.J Vasc Surg. 2017 10; 66(4):991-996.JV
Morbidity and mortality have improved with the evolution of endovascular techniques (thoracic endovascular aortic repair [TEVAR]) for thoracic aortic disease, but results after aortic intervention in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remain unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate outcomes of open and endovascular descending thoracic aortic repair in dialysis-dependent patients.
We identified 352 patients with ESRD on dialysis undergoing open repair (n = 136) or TEVAR (n = 216) of the thoracic aorta from 2005 to 2008 using the United States Renal Data System database. Acute presentation was defined as ruptured aneurysm, dissection, or traumatic injury; all other interventions were considered elective. End points were 30-day mortality, overall survival, rates of perioperative complications, and procedural trends over time. Between-group comparisons and survival analysis used standard statistical methods. Logistic regression and Cox regression were performed using multivariate analysis.
TEVAR subjects were older than those undergoing open repair (68.2 ± 11.5 vs 60.8 ± 13.2 years; P < .001); no other demographics differed. There were 303 patients who had thoracic or thoracoabdominal aneurysms; 47 (13.4%) were ruptured on presentation. There were 44 patients (12.5%) who had aortic dissection and 5 (1.4%) with aortic trauma. Overall 30-day mortality was 21.3% (n = 75), and it was greater for open repair (n = 41 [30.1%]) than for TEVAR (n = 34 [15.7%]; P = .002). Elective 30-day mortality for open repair (n = 27 [29.3%]) was also greater than for TEVAR (n = 24 [14.3%]; P = .005). Those with acute presentation trended toward higher mortality for open repair (n = 14 [31.8%] vs n = 10 [15.7%]; P = .17). Respiratory failure was higher for open repair (n = 69 [50.7%] vs n = 56 [25.9%]; P < .001); postoperative stroke was higher with TEVAR (n = 21 [9.7%] vs n < 10 [<7%]; P = .02). Estimated 1-year survival was 50% and did not differ between groups (44% for open repair, 53% for TEVAR). In multivariate analysis, TEVAR decreased odds of 30-day mortality compared with open repair (odds ratio, 0.41; 95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.71) but failed to demonstrate long-term survival advantage.
In ESRD patients, TEVAR provides short-term mortality benefits compared with open repair, but long-term mortality remains high regardless of treatment modality. Elective intervention for thoracic aortic disease in this population remains high risk and should be approached with caution.