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Subjective and physiological effects, and expired carbon monoxide concentrations in frequent and occasional cannabis smokers following smoked, vaporized, and oral cannabis administration.
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 06 01; 175:67-76.DA

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Although smoking is the most common cannabis administration route, vaporization and consumption of cannabis edibles are common. Few studies directly compare cannabis' subjective and physiological effects following multiple administration routes.

METHODS

Subjective and physiological effects, and expired carbon monoxide (CO) were evaluated in frequent and occasional cannabis users following placebo (0.001% Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]), smoked, vaporized, and oral cannabis (6.9% THC, ∼54mg).

RESULTS

Participants' subjective ratings were significantly elevated compared to placebo after smoking and vaporization, while only occasional smokers' ratings were significantly elevated compared to placebo after oral dosing. Frequent smokers' maximum ratings were significantly different between inhaled and oral routes, while no differences in occasional smokers' maximum ratings between active routes were observed. Additionally, heart rate increases above baseline 0.5h after smoking (mean 12.2bpm) and vaporization (10.7bpm), and at 1.5h (13.0bpm) and 3h (10.2bpm) after oral dosing were significantly greater than changes after placebo, with no differences between frequent and occasional smokers. Finally, smoking produced significantly increased expired CO concentrations 0.25-6h post-dose compared to vaporization.

CONCLUSIONS

All participants had significant elevations in subjective effects after smoking and vaporization, but only occasional smokers after oral cannabis, indicating partial tolerance to subjective effects with frequent exposure. There were no differences in occasional smokers' maximum subjective ratings across the three active administration routes. Vaporized cannabis is an attractive alternative for medicinal administrations over smoking or oral routes; effects occur quickly and doses can be titrated with minimal CO exposure. These results have strong implications for safety and abuse liability assessments.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, United States; Program in Toxicology, University of Maryland Baltimore, Baltimore, MD, United States.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, United States; Department of Forensic Science, College of Criminal Justice, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX, United States.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, United States.Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, United States; University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States. Electronic address: marilyn.huestis@gmail.com.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28407543

Citation

Newmeyer, Matthew N., et al. "Subjective and Physiological Effects, and Expired Carbon Monoxide Concentrations in Frequent and Occasional Cannabis Smokers Following Smoked, Vaporized, and Oral Cannabis Administration." Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 175, 2017, pp. 67-76.
Newmeyer MN, Swortwood MJ, Abulseoud OA, et al. Subjective and physiological effects, and expired carbon monoxide concentrations in frequent and occasional cannabis smokers following smoked, vaporized, and oral cannabis administration. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017;175:67-76.
Newmeyer, M. N., Swortwood, M. J., Abulseoud, O. A., & Huestis, M. A. (2017). Subjective and physiological effects, and expired carbon monoxide concentrations in frequent and occasional cannabis smokers following smoked, vaporized, and oral cannabis administration. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 175, 67-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.02.003
Newmeyer MN, et al. Subjective and Physiological Effects, and Expired Carbon Monoxide Concentrations in Frequent and Occasional Cannabis Smokers Following Smoked, Vaporized, and Oral Cannabis Administration. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 06 1;175:67-76. PubMed PMID: 28407543.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Subjective and physiological effects, and expired carbon monoxide concentrations in frequent and occasional cannabis smokers following smoked, vaporized, and oral cannabis administration. AU - Newmeyer,Matthew N, AU - Swortwood,Madeleine J, AU - Abulseoud,Osama A, AU - Huestis,Marilyn A, Y1 - 2017/03/29/ PY - 2016/12/15/received PY - 2017/01/16/revised PY - 2017/02/09/accepted PY - 2017/4/14/pubmed PY - 2017/12/19/medline PY - 2017/4/14/entrez KW - Cannabis KW - Carbon monoxide KW - Edibles KW - Heart rate KW - Subjective effects SP - 67 EP - 76 JF - Drug and alcohol dependence JO - Drug Alcohol Depend VL - 175 N2 - BACKGROUND: Although smoking is the most common cannabis administration route, vaporization and consumption of cannabis edibles are common. Few studies directly compare cannabis' subjective and physiological effects following multiple administration routes. METHODS: Subjective and physiological effects, and expired carbon monoxide (CO) were evaluated in frequent and occasional cannabis users following placebo (0.001% Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]), smoked, vaporized, and oral cannabis (6.9% THC, ∼54mg). RESULTS: Participants' subjective ratings were significantly elevated compared to placebo after smoking and vaporization, while only occasional smokers' ratings were significantly elevated compared to placebo after oral dosing. Frequent smokers' maximum ratings were significantly different between inhaled and oral routes, while no differences in occasional smokers' maximum ratings between active routes were observed. Additionally, heart rate increases above baseline 0.5h after smoking (mean 12.2bpm) and vaporization (10.7bpm), and at 1.5h (13.0bpm) and 3h (10.2bpm) after oral dosing were significantly greater than changes after placebo, with no differences between frequent and occasional smokers. Finally, smoking produced significantly increased expired CO concentrations 0.25-6h post-dose compared to vaporization. CONCLUSIONS: All participants had significant elevations in subjective effects after smoking and vaporization, but only occasional smokers after oral cannabis, indicating partial tolerance to subjective effects with frequent exposure. There were no differences in occasional smokers' maximum subjective ratings across the three active administration routes. Vaporized cannabis is an attractive alternative for medicinal administrations over smoking or oral routes; effects occur quickly and doses can be titrated with minimal CO exposure. These results have strong implications for safety and abuse liability assessments. SN - 1879-0046 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28407543/Subjective_and_physiological_effects_and_expired_carbon_monoxide_concentrations_in_frequent_and_occasional_cannabis_smokers_following_smoked_vaporized_and_oral_cannabis_administration_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0376-8716(17)30133-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -