The use of a novel perfusion-based cadaveric simulation model with cerebrospinal fluid reconstitution comparing dural repair techniques: a pilot study.Spine J 2017; 17(9):1335-1341SJ
Watertight dural repair is crucial for both incidental durotomy and closure after intradural surgery.
The study aimed to describe a perfusion-based cadaveric simulation model with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reconstitution and to compare spine dural repair techniques.
The study is set in a fresh tissue dissection laboratory.
The sample includes eight fresh human cadavers.
A watertight closure was achieved when pressurized saline up to 40 mm Hg did not cause further CSF leakage beyond the suture lines.
Fresh human cadaveric specimens underwent cannulation of the intradural cervical spine for intrathecal reconstitution of the CSF system. The cervicothoracic dura was then exposed from C7-T12 via laminectomy. The entire dura was then opened in six cadavers (ALLSPINE) and closed with 6-0 Prolene (n=3) or 4-0 Nurolon (n=3), and pressurized with saline via a perfusion system to 60 mm Hg to check for leakage. In two cadavers (INCISION), six separate 2-cm incisions were made and closed with either 6-0 Prolene or 4-0 Nurolon, and then pressurized. A hydrogel sealant was then added and the closure was pressurized again to check for further leakage.
Spinal laminectomy with repair of intentional durotomy was successfully performed in eight cadavers. The operative microscope was used in all cases, and the model provided a realistic experience of spinal durotomy repair. For ALLSPINE cadavers (mean: 240 mm dura/cadaver repaired), the mean pressure threshold for CSF leakage was observed at 66.7 (±2.9) mm Hg in the 6-0 Prolene group and at 43.3 (±14.4) mm Hg in the 4-0 Nurolon group (p>.05). For INCISION cadavers, the mean pressure threshold for CSF leakage without hydrogel sealant was significantly higher in 6-0 Prolene group than in the 4-0 Nurolon group (6-0 Prolene: 80.0±4.5 mm Hg vs. 4-0 Nurolon: 32.5±2.7 mm Hg; p<.01). The mean pressure threshold for CSF leakage with the hydrogel sealants was not significantly different (6-0 Prolene: 100.0±0.0 mm Hg vs. 4-0 Nurolon: 70.0±33.1 mm Hg). The use of a hydrogel sealant significantly increased the pressure thresholds for possible CSF leakage in both the 6-0 Prolene group (p=.01) and the 4-0 Nurolon group (p<.01) when compared with mean pressures without the hydrogel sealant.
We described the feasibility of using a novel cadaveric model for both the study and training of watertight dural closure techniques. 6-0 Prolene was observed to be superior to 4-0 Nurolon for watertight dural closure without a hydrogel sealant. The use of a hydrogel sealant significantly improved watertight dural closures for both 6-0 Prolene and 4-0 Nurolon groups in the cadaveric model.