Hypaphorine Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Endothelial Inflammation via Regulation of TLR4 and PPAR-γ Dependent on PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signal Pathway.Int J Mol Sci 2017; 18(4)IJ
Endothelial lesion response to injurious stimuli is a necessary step for initiating inflammatory cascades in blood vessels. Hypaphorine (Hy) from different marine sources is shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory properties. However, the potential roles and possible molecular mechanisms of Hy in endothelial inflammation have yet to be fully clarified. We showed that Hy significantly inhibited the positive effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on pro-inflammatory cytokines expressions, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), as well as induction of the phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR in HMEC-1 cells. The downregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) and upregulated toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressions in LPS-challenged endothelial cells were prevented by Hy. Inhibition of both PI3K and mTOR reversed LPS-stimulated increases in TLR4 expressions and decreases in PPAR-γ levels. Genetic silencing of TLR4 or PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone obviously abrogated the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-treated HMEC-1 cells. These results suggest that Hy may exert anti-inflammatory actions through the regulation of TLR4 and PPAR-γ dependent on PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathways. Hy may be considered as a therapeutic agent that can potentially relieve or ameliorate endothelial inflammation-associated diseases.