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Effects of whole grain rye, with and without resistant starch type 2 supplementation, on glucose tolerance, gut hormones, inflammation and appetite regulation in an 11-14.5 hour perspective; a randomized controlled study in healthy subjects.
Nutr J. 2017 Apr 21; 16(1):25.NJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and prevention is needed. Whole grain has shown potential to lower the risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. One possible mechanism behind the benefits of whole grain is the gut fermentation of dietary fiber (DF), e.g. non-starch polysaccharides and resistant starch (RS), in whole grain. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of whole grain rye-based products on glucose- and appetite regulation.

METHOD

Twenty-one healthy subjects were provided four rye-based evening test meals in a crossover overnight study design. The test evening meals consisted of either whole grain rye flour bread (RFB) or a 1:1 ratio of whole grain rye flour and rye kernels bread (RFB/RKB), with or without added resistant starch (+RS). White wheat flour bread (WWB) was used as reference evening meal. Blood glucose, insulin, PYY, FFA, IL-6 as well as breath H2 and subjective rating of appetite were measured the following morning at fasting and repeatedly up to 3.5 h after a standardized breakfast consisting of WWB. Ad libitum energy intake was determined at lunch, 14.5 h after evening test and reference meals, respectively.

RESULTS

The evening meal with RFB/RKB + RS decreased postprandial glucose- and insulin responses (iAUC) (P < 0.05) and increased the gut hormone PYY in plasma the following morning 0-120 min after the standardized breakfast, compared to WWB (P = 0.01). Moreover, RFB increased subjective satiety and decreased desire to eat, and both RFB and RFB/RKB decreased feeling of hunger (AUC 0-210 min). All rye-based evening meals decreased or tended to decrease fasting FFA (P < 0.05, RFB/RKB: P = 0.057) and increased breath hydrogen concentration (0-120 min, P < 0.001). No effects were noted on energy intake at lunch or inflammatory marker IL-6 (0 + 180 min) after the rye-based evening meals, compared to WWB.

CONCLUSION

Whole grain rye bread has the potential to improve cardiometabolic variables in an 11-14.5 h perspective in healthy humans. The combination RFB/RKB + RS positively affected biomarkers of glucose- and appetite regulation in a semi-acute perspective. Meanwhile, RFB and RFB/RKB improved subjective appetite ratings. The effects probably emanate from gut fermentation events.

TRIAL REGISTRATION

The study was registered at: ClinicalTrials.gov, register number NCT02347293 (www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02347293). Registered 15 January 2015.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Food for Health Science Centre, Lund University, SE-221 00, Lund, Sweden. jonna.sandberg@food-health-science.lu.se.Food for Health Science Centre, Lund University, SE-221 00, Lund, Sweden.Food for Health Science Centre, Lund University, SE-221 00, Lund, Sweden.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28431559

Citation

Sandberg, Jonna C., et al. "Effects of Whole Grain Rye, With and Without Resistant Starch Type 2 Supplementation, On Glucose Tolerance, Gut Hormones, Inflammation and Appetite Regulation in an 11-14.5 Hour Perspective; a Randomized Controlled Study in Healthy Subjects." Nutrition Journal, vol. 16, no. 1, 2017, p. 25.
Sandberg JC, Björck IME, Nilsson AC. Effects of whole grain rye, with and without resistant starch type 2 supplementation, on glucose tolerance, gut hormones, inflammation and appetite regulation in an 11-14.5 hour perspective; a randomized controlled study in healthy subjects. Nutr J. 2017;16(1):25.
Sandberg, J. C., Björck, I. M. E., & Nilsson, A. C. (2017). Effects of whole grain rye, with and without resistant starch type 2 supplementation, on glucose tolerance, gut hormones, inflammation and appetite regulation in an 11-14.5 hour perspective; a randomized controlled study in healthy subjects. Nutrition Journal, 16(1), 25. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12937-017-0246-5
Sandberg JC, Björck IME, Nilsson AC. Effects of Whole Grain Rye, With and Without Resistant Starch Type 2 Supplementation, On Glucose Tolerance, Gut Hormones, Inflammation and Appetite Regulation in an 11-14.5 Hour Perspective; a Randomized Controlled Study in Healthy Subjects. Nutr J. 2017 Apr 21;16(1):25. PubMed PMID: 28431559.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of whole grain rye, with and without resistant starch type 2 supplementation, on glucose tolerance, gut hormones, inflammation and appetite regulation in an 11-14.5 hour perspective; a randomized controlled study in healthy subjects. AU - Sandberg,Jonna C, AU - Björck,Inger M E, AU - Nilsson,Anne C, Y1 - 2017/04/21/ PY - 2016/11/16/received PY - 2017/04/17/accepted PY - 2017/4/23/entrez PY - 2017/4/23/pubmed PY - 2018/4/13/medline KW - Appetite regulation KW - Dietary fiber KW - Dietary prevention KW - Glucose regulation KW - Gut fermentation KW - Gut hormones KW - Obesity KW - Rye KW - Type 2 diabetes KW - Whole grain SP - 25 EP - 25 JF - Nutrition journal JO - Nutr J VL - 16 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and prevention is needed. Whole grain has shown potential to lower the risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. One possible mechanism behind the benefits of whole grain is the gut fermentation of dietary fiber (DF), e.g. non-starch polysaccharides and resistant starch (RS), in whole grain. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of whole grain rye-based products on glucose- and appetite regulation. METHOD: Twenty-one healthy subjects were provided four rye-based evening test meals in a crossover overnight study design. The test evening meals consisted of either whole grain rye flour bread (RFB) or a 1:1 ratio of whole grain rye flour and rye kernels bread (RFB/RKB), with or without added resistant starch (+RS). White wheat flour bread (WWB) was used as reference evening meal. Blood glucose, insulin, PYY, FFA, IL-6 as well as breath H2 and subjective rating of appetite were measured the following morning at fasting and repeatedly up to 3.5 h after a standardized breakfast consisting of WWB. Ad libitum energy intake was determined at lunch, 14.5 h after evening test and reference meals, respectively. RESULTS: The evening meal with RFB/RKB + RS decreased postprandial glucose- and insulin responses (iAUC) (P < 0.05) and increased the gut hormone PYY in plasma the following morning 0-120 min after the standardized breakfast, compared to WWB (P = 0.01). Moreover, RFB increased subjective satiety and decreased desire to eat, and both RFB and RFB/RKB decreased feeling of hunger (AUC 0-210 min). All rye-based evening meals decreased or tended to decrease fasting FFA (P < 0.05, RFB/RKB: P = 0.057) and increased breath hydrogen concentration (0-120 min, P < 0.001). No effects were noted on energy intake at lunch or inflammatory marker IL-6 (0 + 180 min) after the rye-based evening meals, compared to WWB. CONCLUSION: Whole grain rye bread has the potential to improve cardiometabolic variables in an 11-14.5 h perspective in healthy humans. The combination RFB/RKB + RS positively affected biomarkers of glucose- and appetite regulation in a semi-acute perspective. Meanwhile, RFB and RFB/RKB improved subjective appetite ratings. The effects probably emanate from gut fermentation events. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered at: ClinicalTrials.gov, register number NCT02347293 (www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02347293). Registered 15 January 2015. SN - 1475-2891 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28431559/Effects_of_whole_grain_rye_with_and_without_resistant_starch_type_2_supplementation_on_glucose_tolerance_gut_hormones_inflammation_and_appetite_regulation_in_an_11_14_5_hour_perspective L2 - https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12937-017-0246-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -