Improvement in Nutritional Status in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease-4 by a Nutrition Education Program With No Impact on Renal Function and Determined by Male Sex.J Ren Nutr. 2017 09; 27(5):303-310.JR
Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and a rapid deterioration of kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there is little information regarding the effect of nutrition intervention. The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a nutrition education program (NEP) in patients with nondialysis dependent CKD (NDD-CKD), based on the diagnostic criteria for PEW proposed by the International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism. The design of the study was a 6-month longitudinal, prospective, and interventional study. The study was conducted from March 2008 to September 2011 in the Nephrology Department of La Paz University Hospital in Madrid, Spain.
A total of 160 patients with NDD-CKD started the NEP, and 128 finished it.
The 6-month NEP consisted of designing an individualized diet plan based on the patient's initial nutritional status, and 4 nutrition education sessions.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Changes in nutritional status (PEW) and biochemical, anthropometric and body composition parameters.
After 6 months of intervention, potassium and inflammation levels decreased, and an improved lipid profile was found. Body mass index lowered, with increased muscle mass and a stable fat mass. Men showed increased levels of albumin and prealbumin, and women showed decreased proteinuria levels. The prevalence of PEW decreased globally (27.3%-10.9%; P = .000), but differently in men (29.5%-6.5%; P = .000) and in women (25.4%-14.9%; P = .070), 3 of the women having worsened. Kidney function was preserved, despite increased protein intake.
The NEP in NDD-CKD generally improved nutritional status as measured by PEW parameters, but individual poorer results indicated the need to pay special attention to female sex and low body mass index at the start of the program.