Stretchable Biofuel Cells as Wearable Textile-based Self-Powered Sensors.J Mater Chem A Mater. 2016 Dec 21; 4(47):18342-18353.JM
Highly stretchable textile-based biofuel cells (BFCs), acting as effective self-powered sensors, have been fabricated using screen-printing of customized stress-enduring inks. Due to synergistic effects of nanomaterial-based engineered inks and the serpentine designs, these printable bioelectronic devices endure severe mechanical deformations, e.g., stretching, indentation, or torsional twisting. Glucose and lactate BFCs with the single enzyme and membrane-free configurations generated the maximum power density of 160 and 250 µW cm-2 with the open circuit voltages of 0.44 and 0.46 V, respectively. The textile-BFCs were able to withstand repeated severe mechanical deformations with minimal impact on its structural integrity, as was indicated from their stable power output after 100 cycles of 100% stretching. By providing power signals proportional to the sweat fuel concentration, these stretchable devices act as highly selective and stable self-powered textile sensors. Applicability to sock-based BFC and self-powered biosensor and mechanically compliant operations was demonstrated on human subjects. These stretchable skin-worn "scavenge-sense-display" devices are expected to contribute to the development of skin-worn energy harvesting systems, advanced non-invasive self-powered sensors and wearable electronics on a stretchable garment.