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Predictors of induction onto extended-release naltrexone among unemployed heroin-dependent adults.
J Subst Abuse Treat. 2018 02; 85:38-44.JS

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIM

Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) blocks the effects of opioids for 4weeks; however, starting treatment can be challenging because it requires 7 to 10days of abstinence from all opioids. In the present study we identified patient and treatment characteristics that were associated with successful induction onto XR-NTX.

METHODS

144 unemployed heroin-dependent adults who had recently undergone opioid detoxification completed self-report measures and behavioral tasks before starting an outpatient XR-NTX induction procedure. Employment-based reinforcement was used to promote opioid abstinence and adherence to oral naltrexone during the induction. Participants were invited to attend a therapeutic workplace where they earned wages for completing jobs skills training. Participants who had used opioids recently were initially invited to attend the workplace for a 7-day washout period. Then those participants were required to provide opioid-negative urine samples and then take scheduled doses of oral naltrexone to work and earn wages. Participants who had not recently used opioids could begin oral naltrexone immediately. After stabilization on oral naltrexone, participants were eligible to receive XR-NTX and were randomized into one of four treatment groups, two of which were offered XR-NTX. Binary and multiple logistic regressions were used to identify characteristics at intake that were associated with successfully completing the XR-NTX induction.

RESULTS

58.3% of participants completed the XR-NTX induction. Those who could begin oral naltrexone immediately were more likely to complete the induction than those who could not (79.5% vs. 25.0%). Of 15 characteristics, 2 were independently associated with XR-NTX induction success: legal status and recent opioid detoxification type. Participants who were not on parole or probation (vs. on parole or probation) were more likely to complete the induction (OR [95% CI]=2.5 [1.1-5.7], p=0.034), as were those who had come from a longer-term detoxification program (≥21days) (vs. a shorter-term [<21days]) (OR [95% CI]=7.0 [3.0-16.6], p<0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Our analyses suggest that individuals recently leaving longer-term opioid detoxification programs are more likely to complete XR-NTX induction. Individuals on parole or probation are less likely to complete XR-NTX induction and may need additional supports or modifications to induction procedures to be successful.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, United States.Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, United States.Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, United States.Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, United States.Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, United States.Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, United States.Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, United States.Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, United States. Electronic address: ksilverm@jhmi.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28449955

Citation

Jarvis, Brantley P., et al. "Predictors of Induction Onto Extended-release Naltrexone Among Unemployed Heroin-dependent Adults." Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, vol. 85, 2018, pp. 38-44.
Jarvis BP, Holtyn AF, Berry MS, et al. Predictors of induction onto extended-release naltrexone among unemployed heroin-dependent adults. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2018;85:38-44.
Jarvis, B. P., Holtyn, A. F., Berry, M. S., Subramaniam, S., Umbricht, A., Fingerhood, M., Bigelow, G. E., & Silverman, K. (2018). Predictors of induction onto extended-release naltrexone among unemployed heroin-dependent adults. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 85, 38-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2017.04.012
Jarvis BP, et al. Predictors of Induction Onto Extended-release Naltrexone Among Unemployed Heroin-dependent Adults. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2018;85:38-44. PubMed PMID: 28449955.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Predictors of induction onto extended-release naltrexone among unemployed heroin-dependent adults. AU - Jarvis,Brantley P, AU - Holtyn,August F, AU - Berry,Meredith S, AU - Subramaniam,Shrinidhi, AU - Umbricht,Annie, AU - Fingerhood,Michael, AU - Bigelow,George E, AU - Silverman,Kenneth, Y1 - 2017/04/20/ PY - 2016/09/30/received PY - 2017/04/14/revised PY - 2017/04/17/accepted PY - 2017/4/30/pubmed PY - 2019/10/17/medline PY - 2017/4/29/entrez KW - Extended-release naltrexone KW - Heroin KW - Induction KW - Opioids SP - 38 EP - 44 JF - Journal of substance abuse treatment JO - J Subst Abuse Treat VL - 85 N2 - BACKGROUND AND AIM: Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) blocks the effects of opioids for 4weeks; however, starting treatment can be challenging because it requires 7 to 10days of abstinence from all opioids. In the present study we identified patient and treatment characteristics that were associated with successful induction onto XR-NTX. METHODS: 144 unemployed heroin-dependent adults who had recently undergone opioid detoxification completed self-report measures and behavioral tasks before starting an outpatient XR-NTX induction procedure. Employment-based reinforcement was used to promote opioid abstinence and adherence to oral naltrexone during the induction. Participants were invited to attend a therapeutic workplace where they earned wages for completing jobs skills training. Participants who had used opioids recently were initially invited to attend the workplace for a 7-day washout period. Then those participants were required to provide opioid-negative urine samples and then take scheduled doses of oral naltrexone to work and earn wages. Participants who had not recently used opioids could begin oral naltrexone immediately. After stabilization on oral naltrexone, participants were eligible to receive XR-NTX and were randomized into one of four treatment groups, two of which were offered XR-NTX. Binary and multiple logistic regressions were used to identify characteristics at intake that were associated with successfully completing the XR-NTX induction. RESULTS: 58.3% of participants completed the XR-NTX induction. Those who could begin oral naltrexone immediately were more likely to complete the induction than those who could not (79.5% vs. 25.0%). Of 15 characteristics, 2 were independently associated with XR-NTX induction success: legal status and recent opioid detoxification type. Participants who were not on parole or probation (vs. on parole or probation) were more likely to complete the induction (OR [95% CI]=2.5 [1.1-5.7], p=0.034), as were those who had come from a longer-term detoxification program (≥21days) (vs. a shorter-term [<21days]) (OR [95% CI]=7.0 [3.0-16.6], p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses suggest that individuals recently leaving longer-term opioid detoxification programs are more likely to complete XR-NTX induction. Individuals on parole or probation are less likely to complete XR-NTX induction and may need additional supports or modifications to induction procedures to be successful. SN - 1873-6483 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28449955/Predictors_of_induction_onto_extended_release_naltrexone_among_unemployed_heroin_dependent_adults_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0740-5472(16)30371-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -