Dietary pattern derived by reduced rank regression and depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population: the HELIUS study.Eur J Clin Nutr. 2017 08; 71(8):987-994.EJ
To investigate the association of dietary patterns derived by reduced rank regression (RRR) with depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population.
Cross-sectional data from the HELIUS study were used. In total, 4967 men and women (18-70 years) of Dutch, South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Turkish and Moroccan origin living in the Netherlands were included. Diet was measured using ethnic-specific food frequency questionnaires. Depressive symptoms were measured with the nine-item patient health questionnaire.
By performing RRR in the whole population and per ethnic group, comparable dietary patterns were identified and therefore the dietary pattern for the whole population was used for subsequent analyses. We identified a dietary pattern that was strongly related to eicosapentaenoic acid+docosahexaenoic acid, folate, magnesium and zinc (response variables) and which was characterized by milk products, cheese, whole grains, vegetables, legumes, nuts, potatoes and red meat. After adjustment for confounders, a statistically significant inverse association was observed in the whole population (B: -0.03, 95% CI: -0.06, -0.00, P=0.046) and among Moroccan (B: -0.09, 95% CI: -0.13, -0.04, P=0.027) and South-Asian Surinamese participants (B: -0.05, 95% CI: -0.09, -0.01, P=<0.001), whereas no statistically significant association was found in the remaining ethnic groups. No statistically significant associations were found between the dietary pattern and significant depressed mood in any of the ethnic groups.
No consistent evidence was found that consumption of a dietary pattern, high in nutrients that are hypothesized to protect against depression, was associated with lower depressive symptoms across different ethnic groups.