Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Myristica fragrans seed (nutmeg) extract and its antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates.Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Jun; 24(17):14758-14769.ES
Biosynthesis of nanoparticles has received increasing attention due its effective mode of action, eco-friendly preparation methodology, and less cytotoxicity. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from aqueous seed extract of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) were characterized. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the presence of bioactive components acts as effective in reducing and capping agents for converting AgNO3 to AgNPs. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the biologically reduced reaction mixture showed the surface plasmon peak at 420 nm, which is the characteristic peak of AgNPs. The functional molecules present in the M. fragrans seed extract and their interaction with the AgNPs were identified by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the face-centered cubic crystalline structure of metallic silver nanoparticle and diameter was calculated using Scherrer's equation. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) image showed spherical shaped particles with an average size of 25 nm. The scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) confirmed the presence of elemental silver. The antibacterial activity of biosynthesized AgNPs was evaluated against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) according to agar well diffusion, MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration), and IC50 (inhibitory concentration 50%). The results confirm that bacterial growth was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Further, the cytotoxic effect of biosynthesized AgNPs on rat spleenocytes was analyzed. Thus, it is suggested that the nutmeg-biosynthesized AgNPs could be a lead drug and used effectively to control the MDR S. Typhi, thereby reducing public health issues and environmental pollution.