Pipe-Wire TiO2-Sn@Carbon Nanofibers Paper Anodes for Lithium and Sodium Ion Batteries.Nano Lett. 2017 06 14; 17(6):3830-3836.NL
Metallic tin has been considered as one of the most promising anode materials both for lithium (LIBs) and sodium ion battery (NIBs) because of a high theoretical capacity and an appropriate low discharge potential. However, Sn anodes suffer from a rapid capacity fading during cycling due to pulverization induced by severe volume changes. Here we innovatively synthesized pipe-wire TiO2-Sn@carbon nanofibers (TiO2-Sn@CNFs) via electrospinning and atomic layer deposition to suppress pulverization-induced capacity decay. In pipe-wire TiO2-Sn@CNFs paper, nano-Sn is uniformly dispersed in carbon nanofibers, which not only act as a buffer material to prevent pulverization, but also serve as a conductive matrix. In addition, TiO2 pipe as the protection shell outside of Sn@carbon nanofibers can restrain the volume variation to prevent Sn from aggregation and pulverization during cycling, thus increasing the Coulombic efficiency. The pipe-wire TiO2-Sn@CNFs show excellent electrochemical performance as anodes for both LIBs and NIBs. It exhibits a high and stable capacity of 643 mA h/g at 200 mA/g after 1100 cycles in LIBs and 413 mA h/g at 100 mA/g after 400 cycles in NIBs. These results would shed light on the practical application of Sn-based materials as a high capacity electrode with good cycling stability for next-generation LIBs and NIBs.