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Beliefs about the consequences of using benzodiazepines among persons with opioid use disorder.
J Subst Abuse Treat. 2017 06; 77:67-71.JS

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Patients admitted to addiction treatment programs report high rates of concurrent opioid and benzodiazepine (BZD) use. This combination places individuals at high risk for accidental overdose and other serious consequences. However, little is known about the beliefs opioid users have about the consequences of BZD use.

METHODS

We surveyed consecutive persons initiating inpatient opioid detoxification (N=476; 95.0% enrollment) and identified 245 who reported BZD use in the past 30days and/or had a positive toxicology. We compared those who did and did not report BZD use on demographic and substance use variables, and specific beliefs about the potential effects of BZDs.

RESULTS

Participants averaged 32.2years of age, 71.2% were male, 86.6% used heroin, and 68.7% reported injection drug use in the past 30days. Over half (51.5%) used a BZD in the month prior to admission; of these, 26.2% (n=64) reported being prescribed a BZD. Alprazolam (Xanax) was the most commonly used BZD (54%). Benzodiazepine users (versus non-users) were significantly more likely to be female and non-Hispanic White, use concurrent substances, and report past year overdose. Overall, nearly all BZD users endorsed accurate beliefs that BZDs can increase the risk of overdose and can be addictive. However, BZD users, relative to non-users, were significantly less likely to endorse some known adverse consequences of BZDs, such as risk of worsening depression and poor medication-assisted opioid treatment retention.

CONCLUSIONS

Delineating the full array of risks from combining BZDs and opioids should be a high priority in detoxification settings, given the increased risks associated with BZD misuse in this population.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Behavioral Medicine Department, Butler Hospital, Providence, RI 02906, United States; Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02118, United States. Electronic address: mdstein@bu.edu.Behavioral Medicine Department, Butler Hospital, Providence, RI 02906, United States.Behavioral Medicine Department, Butler Hospital, Providence, RI 02906, United States; Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, United States.Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, United States; Stanley Street Treatment and Resources, Inc., Fall River, MA 02720, United States.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28476275

Citation

Stein, Michael D., et al. "Beliefs About the Consequences of Using Benzodiazepines Among Persons With Opioid Use Disorder." Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, vol. 77, 2017, pp. 67-71.
Stein MD, Anderson BJ, Kenney SR, et al. Beliefs about the consequences of using benzodiazepines among persons with opioid use disorder. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2017;77:67-71.
Stein, M. D., Anderson, B. J., Kenney, S. R., & Bailey, G. L. (2017). Beliefs about the consequences of using benzodiazepines among persons with opioid use disorder. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 77, 67-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2017.03.002
Stein MD, et al. Beliefs About the Consequences of Using Benzodiazepines Among Persons With Opioid Use Disorder. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2017;77:67-71. PubMed PMID: 28476275.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Beliefs about the consequences of using benzodiazepines among persons with opioid use disorder. AU - Stein,Michael D, AU - Anderson,Bradley J, AU - Kenney,Shannon R, AU - Bailey,Genie L, Y1 - 2017/03/09/ PY - 2016/12/19/received PY - 2017/03/03/revised PY - 2017/03/08/accepted PY - 2017/5/7/entrez PY - 2017/5/10/pubmed PY - 2018/3/2/medline KW - Anxiety KW - Beliefs KW - Benzodiazepines KW - Detoxification KW - Opioids KW - Use SP - 67 EP - 71 JF - Journal of substance abuse treatment JO - J Subst Abuse Treat VL - 77 N2 - BACKGROUND: Patients admitted to addiction treatment programs report high rates of concurrent opioid and benzodiazepine (BZD) use. This combination places individuals at high risk for accidental overdose and other serious consequences. However, little is known about the beliefs opioid users have about the consequences of BZD use. METHODS: We surveyed consecutive persons initiating inpatient opioid detoxification (N=476; 95.0% enrollment) and identified 245 who reported BZD use in the past 30days and/or had a positive toxicology. We compared those who did and did not report BZD use on demographic and substance use variables, and specific beliefs about the potential effects of BZDs. RESULTS: Participants averaged 32.2years of age, 71.2% were male, 86.6% used heroin, and 68.7% reported injection drug use in the past 30days. Over half (51.5%) used a BZD in the month prior to admission; of these, 26.2% (n=64) reported being prescribed a BZD. Alprazolam (Xanax) was the most commonly used BZD (54%). Benzodiazepine users (versus non-users) were significantly more likely to be female and non-Hispanic White, use concurrent substances, and report past year overdose. Overall, nearly all BZD users endorsed accurate beliefs that BZDs can increase the risk of overdose and can be addictive. However, BZD users, relative to non-users, were significantly less likely to endorse some known adverse consequences of BZDs, such as risk of worsening depression and poor medication-assisted opioid treatment retention. CONCLUSIONS: Delineating the full array of risks from combining BZDs and opioids should be a high priority in detoxification settings, given the increased risks associated with BZD misuse in this population. SN - 1873-6483 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28476275/Beliefs_about_the_consequences_of_using_benzodiazepines_among_persons_with_opioid_use_disorder_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0740-5472(16)30530-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -