Integrative assessment of the effects produced by Ag nanoparticles at different levels of biological complexity in Eisenia fetida maintained in two standard soils (OECD and LUFA 2.3).Chemosphere. 2017 Aug; 181:747-758.C
There is a potential risk to increase the release of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) into the environment: For instance. in soils receiving sludge models estimate 0.007 mg Ag NPs kg-1 that will annually increase due to sludge or sludge incineration residues land-disposal. Thus, the concern about the hazards of nanosilver to soils and soil invertebrates is growing. Studies performed up to now have been focused in traditional endpoints, used limit range concentrations and employed different soil types that differ in physico-chemical characteristics. Presently, effects of Ag NPs have been measured at different levels of biological complexity in Eisenia fetida, exposed for 3 and 14 d to high but sublethal (50 mg Ag NPs kg-1) and close to modeled environmental concentrations (0.05 mg Ag NPs kg-1). Since characteristics of the exposure matrix may limit the response of the organisms to these concentrations, experiments were carried out in OECD and LUFA soils, the most used standard soils. High concentrations of Ag NPs increased catalase activity and DNA damage in OECD soils after 14 d while in LUFA 2.3 soils produced earlier effects (weight loss, decrease in cell viability and increase in catalase activity at day 3). At day 14, LUFA 2.3 (low clay and organic matter-OM-) could have provoked starvation of earthworms, masking Ag NPs toxicity. The concentration close to modeled environmental concentrations produced effects uniquely in LUFA 2.3 soil. Accurate physico-chemical characteristics of the standard soils are crucial to assess the toxicity exerted by Ag NPs in E. fetida since low clay and OM contents can be considered toxicity enhancers.