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Probiotic Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 Reduces Depression Scores and Alters Brain Activity: A Pilot Study in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome.
Gastroenterology 2017; 153(2):448-459.e8G

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS

Probiotics can reduce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but little is known about their effects on psychiatric comorbidities. We performed a prospective study to evaluate the effects of Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 (BL) on anxiety and depression in patients with IBS.

METHODS

We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 44 adults with IBS and diarrhea or a mixed-stool pattern (based on Rome III criteria) and mild to moderate anxiety and/or depression (based on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale) at McMaster University in Canada, from March 2011 to May 2014. At the screening visit, clinical history and symptoms were assessed and blood samples were collected. Patients were then randomly assigned to groups and given daily BL (n = 22) or placebo (n = 22) for 6 weeks. At weeks 0, 6, and 10, we determined patients' levels of anxiety and depression, IBS symptoms, quality of life, and somatization using validated questionnaires. At weeks 0 and 6, stool, urine and blood samples were collected, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) test was performed. We assessed brain activation patterns, fecal microbiota, urine metabolome profiles, serum markers of inflammation, neurotransmitters, and neurotrophin levels.

RESULTS

At week 6, 14 of 22 patients in the BL group had reduction in depression scores of 2 points or more on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, vs 7 of 22 patients in the placebo group (P = .04). BL had no significant effect on anxiety or IBS symptoms. Patients in the BL group had a mean increase in quality of life score compared with the placebo group. The fMRI analysis showed that BL reduced responses to negative emotional stimuli in multiple brain areas, including amygdala and fronto-limbic regions, compared with placebo. The groups had similar fecal microbiota profiles, serum markers of inflammation, and levels of neurotrophins and neurotransmitters, but the BL group had reduced urine levels of methylamines and aromatic amino acids metabolites. At week 10, depression scores were reduced in patients given BL vs placebo.

CONCLUSION

In a placebo-controlled trial, we found that the probiotic BL reduces depression but not anxiety scores and increases quality of life in patients with IBS. These improvements were associated with changes in brain activation patterns that indicate that this probiotic reduces limbic reactivity. ClinicalTrials.gov no. NCT01276626.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Medicine, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.Department of Psychology, Neuroscience, and Behavior, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.Department of Psychology, Neuroscience, and Behavior, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.Department of Medicine, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.Department of Medicine, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.Department of Medicine, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.Nestlé Institute of Health Sciences SA, Lausanne, Switzerland.Nestlé Institute of Health Sciences SA, Lausanne, Switzerland.Department of Medicine, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.Department of Psychology, Neuroscience, and Behavior, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.Department of Psychology, Neuroscience, and Behavior, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.Department of Psychology, Neuroscience, and Behavior, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.Department of Medicine, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.Department of Medicine, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.Leeds Gastroenterology Institute, St. James's University Hospital, and Leeds Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.Department of Pathology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.Nestlé Research Center, Nutrition Institute, Lausanne, Switzerland.Nestlé Research Center, Nutrition Institute, Lausanne, Switzerland.Department of Medicine, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.Department of Medicine, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.Department of Medicine, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.Department of Medicine, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada. Electronic address: bercikp@mcmaster.ca.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28483500

Citation

Pinto-Sanchez, Maria Ines, et al. "Probiotic Bifidobacterium Longum NCC3001 Reduces Depression Scores and Alters Brain Activity: a Pilot Study in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome." Gastroenterology, vol. 153, no. 2, 2017, pp. 448-459.e8.
Pinto-Sanchez MI, Hall GB, Ghajar K, et al. Probiotic Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 Reduces Depression Scores and Alters Brain Activity: A Pilot Study in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2017;153(2):448-459.e8.
Pinto-Sanchez, M. I., Hall, G. B., Ghajar, K., Nardelli, A., Bolino, C., Lau, J. T., ... Bercik, P. (2017). Probiotic Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 Reduces Depression Scores and Alters Brain Activity: A Pilot Study in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Gastroenterology, 153(2), pp. 448-459.e8. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2017.05.003.
Pinto-Sanchez MI, et al. Probiotic Bifidobacterium Longum NCC3001 Reduces Depression Scores and Alters Brain Activity: a Pilot Study in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2017;153(2):448-459.e8. PubMed PMID: 28483500.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Probiotic Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 Reduces Depression Scores and Alters Brain Activity: A Pilot Study in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome. AU - Pinto-Sanchez,Maria Ines, AU - Hall,Geoffrey B, AU - Ghajar,Kathy, AU - Nardelli,Andrea, AU - Bolino,Carolina, AU - Lau,Jennifer T, AU - Martin,Francois-Pierre, AU - Cominetti,Ornella, AU - Welsh,Christopher, AU - Rieder,Amber, AU - Traynor,Jenna, AU - Gregory,Caitlin, AU - De Palma,Giada, AU - Pigrau,Marc, AU - Ford,Alexander C, AU - Macri,Joseph, AU - Berger,Bernard, AU - Bergonzelli,Gabriela, AU - Surette,Michael G, AU - Collins,Stephen M, AU - Moayyedi,Paul, AU - Bercik,Premysl, Y1 - 2017/05/05/ PY - 2016/06/06/received PY - 2017/04/07/revised PY - 2017/05/02/accepted PY - 2017/5/10/pubmed PY - 2017/9/1/medline PY - 2017/5/10/entrez KW - Anxiety KW - Depression KW - IBS KW - fMRI SP - 448 EP - 459.e8 JF - Gastroenterology JO - Gastroenterology VL - 153 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND & AIMS: Probiotics can reduce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but little is known about their effects on psychiatric comorbidities. We performed a prospective study to evaluate the effects of Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 (BL) on anxiety and depression in patients with IBS. METHODS: We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 44 adults with IBS and diarrhea or a mixed-stool pattern (based on Rome III criteria) and mild to moderate anxiety and/or depression (based on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale) at McMaster University in Canada, from March 2011 to May 2014. At the screening visit, clinical history and symptoms were assessed and blood samples were collected. Patients were then randomly assigned to groups and given daily BL (n = 22) or placebo (n = 22) for 6 weeks. At weeks 0, 6, and 10, we determined patients' levels of anxiety and depression, IBS symptoms, quality of life, and somatization using validated questionnaires. At weeks 0 and 6, stool, urine and blood samples were collected, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) test was performed. We assessed brain activation patterns, fecal microbiota, urine metabolome profiles, serum markers of inflammation, neurotransmitters, and neurotrophin levels. RESULTS: At week 6, 14 of 22 patients in the BL group had reduction in depression scores of 2 points or more on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, vs 7 of 22 patients in the placebo group (P = .04). BL had no significant effect on anxiety or IBS symptoms. Patients in the BL group had a mean increase in quality of life score compared with the placebo group. The fMRI analysis showed that BL reduced responses to negative emotional stimuli in multiple brain areas, including amygdala and fronto-limbic regions, compared with placebo. The groups had similar fecal microbiota profiles, serum markers of inflammation, and levels of neurotrophins and neurotransmitters, but the BL group had reduced urine levels of methylamines and aromatic amino acids metabolites. At week 10, depression scores were reduced in patients given BL vs placebo. CONCLUSION: In a placebo-controlled trial, we found that the probiotic BL reduces depression but not anxiety scores and increases quality of life in patients with IBS. These improvements were associated with changes in brain activation patterns that indicate that this probiotic reduces limbic reactivity. ClinicalTrials.gov no. NCT01276626. SN - 1528-0012 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28483500/Probiotic_Bifidobacterium_longum_NCC3001_Reduces_Depression_Scores_and_Alters_Brain_Activity:_A_Pilot_Study_in_Patients_With_Irritable_Bowel_Syndrome_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0016-5085(17)35557-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -