Risk of different precipitating events for progressing to acute-on-chronic liver failure in HBV-related cirrhotic patients.J Dig Dis. 2017 May; 18(5):292-301.JD
Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a distinct syndrome that develops in patients with cirrhosis and acute decompensation (AD). This study focused on the precipitating events (PEs) of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related cirrhotic patients diagnosed as ACLF based on the Chronic Liver Failure Consortium organ failure (CLIF-C OF) score.
Hospitalized patients with HBV-related cirrhosis and AD were retrospectively included. The patients' characteristics, laboratory test results, PEs, CLIF-C OF score and short-term prognosis were evaluated.
Of the 890 patients enrolled 300 (33.7%) were diagnosed as ACLF and 590 (66.3%) without ACLF. ACLF patients had a higher incidence of PEs than those without ACLF. The ACLF patients were more prone to having PEs of bacterial infection (P < 0.001), HBV reactivation (P < 0.001), active alcoholism (P = 0.036) and superimposed hepatitis virus infection (P = 0.031), whereas portal vein thrombosis (P = 0.002) were less common in the non-ACLF group. ACLF patients with the top four single PEs had diverse types of organ failures. However, they shared a similar short-term prognosis. While in patients without PEs the ACLF group had higher systemic inflammation and deterirated outcomes compared with the non-ACLF group.
PEs of bacterial infection, HBV reactivation, active alcoholism and superimposed hepatitis virus infection, but not GI hemorrhage or portal vein thrombosis, were risk factors for ACLF. There may be two types of patients with ACLF based on the differences in the clinical manifestation of the disease.