Visit-to-visit glycemic variability is a strong predictor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: Competing risk analysis using a national cohort from the Taiwan diabetes study.PLoS One. 2017; 12(5):e0177184.Plos
This study aims to examine the association between visit-to-visit glucose variability, which was measured by coefficient of variation (CV) of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a large number of patients with type 2 diabetes with an average follow-up of 7.58 years.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 27,257 patients with type 2 diabetes who participated in the National Diabetes Case Management Program in Taiwan. Visit-to-visit variability in HbA1c and FPG at baseline and the incidence of COPD were analyzed using a modified Cox proportional hazards model considering competing risks.
A total of 2,346 incident cases of COPD. Patients were grouped into tertiles of FPG-CV and HbA1c-CV. The incidence rates in the first, second, and third tertiles were 9.87, 11.06, and 13.19, respectively, for FPG-CV and 10.2, 11.81, and 12.07, for HbA1c-CV per 1000 person-years. After adjusting for age, gender, diabetes duration, treatment type, smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, baseline FPG and HbA1c levels, and complications, both FPG-CV and HbA1c-CV were independently associated with COPD. The hazard ratios of COPD for the third terile compared with the first tertile of FPG-CV were 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-1.40). Moreover, the hazard ratios of COPD for the third and second tertiles compared with the first tertile of HbA1c-CV were 1.13 (1.02-1.25) and 1.13 (1.02-1.26), respectively.
Patients with FPG-CV higher than 34.6% or HbA1c-CV higher than 8.4% exhibited an increased risk of COPD. This finding confirmed the linear relationship of FPG-CV and HbA1c-CV to COPD. Visit-to-visit variability in FPG and HbA1c levels are strong predictors of COPD in patients with type 2 diabetes. Future studies should focus on lung dysfunction in diabetes, and adequate glucose control strategy in regular clinical practices must be established for COPD prevention.