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Evaluation of a specialized yoga program for persons with a spinal cord injury: a pilot randomized controlled trial.
J Pain Res 2017; 10:999-1017JP

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of a specialized yoga program for individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) on pain, psychological, and mindfulness variables.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Participants with SCI (n=23) were outpatients or community members affiliated with a rehabilitation hospital. Participants were randomized to an Iyengar yoga (IY; n=11) group or to a 6-week wait-list control (WLC; n=12) group. The IY group participated in a twice-weekly 6-week seated IY program; the WLC group participated in the same yoga program, after the IY group's yoga program had ended. Pain, psychological, and mindfulness measures were collected at two time points for both groups (within 1-2 weeks before and after program 1 and at a third time point for the WLC group (within 1 week after program 2).

RESULTS

Linear mixed-effect growth models were conducted to evaluate the main effects of group at T2 (postintervention), controlling for T1 (preintervention) scores. T2 depression scores were lower (F1,18=6.1, P<0.05) and T2 self-compassion scores higher (F1,18=6.57, P< 0.05) in the IY group compared to the WLC group. To increase sample size and power, the two groups were combined and analyzed across time by comparing pre- and postintervention scores. Main effects of time were found for depression scores, (F1,14.83=6.62, P<0.05), self-compassion, (F1,16.6=4.49, P<0.05), mindfulness (F1,16.79=5.42, P<0.05), mindful observing (F1,19.82=5.06, P<0.05), and mindful nonreactivity, (F1,16.53=4.92, P<0.05), all showing improvement after the intervention.

DISCUSSION

The results indicated that a specialized 6-week yoga intervention reduced depressive symptoms and increased self-compassion in individuals with SCI, and may also have fostered greater mindfulness.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health, York University.St John's Rehab Research Program, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. Lyndhurst Centre, Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, University Health Network.Vidya Institute.Student Life, University of Toronto, Toronto.Lyndhurst Centre, Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, University Health Network.Lyndhurst Centre, Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, University Health Network.Community Care Access Centre, London, ON, Canada.Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health, York University.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

28496356

Citation

Curtis, Kathryn, et al. "Evaluation of a Specialized Yoga Program for Persons With a Spinal Cord Injury: a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial." Journal of Pain Research, vol. 10, 2017, pp. 999-1017.
Curtis K, Hitzig SL, Bechsgaard G, et al. Evaluation of a specialized yoga program for persons with a spinal cord injury: a pilot randomized controlled trial. J Pain Res. 2017;10:999-1017.
Curtis, K., Hitzig, S. L., Bechsgaard, G., Stoliker, C., Alton, C., Saunders, N., ... Katz, J. (2017). Evaluation of a specialized yoga program for persons with a spinal cord injury: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Journal of Pain Research, 10, pp. 999-1017. doi:10.2147/JPR.S130530.
Curtis K, et al. Evaluation of a Specialized Yoga Program for Persons With a Spinal Cord Injury: a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. J Pain Res. 2017;10:999-1017. PubMed PMID: 28496356.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Evaluation of a specialized yoga program for persons with a spinal cord injury: a pilot randomized controlled trial. AU - Curtis,Kathryn, AU - Hitzig,Sander L, AU - Bechsgaard,Gitte, AU - Stoliker,Candice, AU - Alton,Charlene, AU - Saunders,Nicole, AU - Leong,Nicole, AU - Katz,Joel, Y1 - 2017/05/03/ PY - 2017/5/13/entrez PY - 2017/5/13/pubmed PY - 2017/5/13/medline KW - Iyengar yoga KW - depressive symptoms KW - self-compassion KW - spinal cord injury SP - 999 EP - 1017 JF - Journal of pain research JO - J Pain Res VL - 10 N2 - OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of a specialized yoga program for individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) on pain, psychological, and mindfulness variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants with SCI (n=23) were outpatients or community members affiliated with a rehabilitation hospital. Participants were randomized to an Iyengar yoga (IY; n=11) group or to a 6-week wait-list control (WLC; n=12) group. The IY group participated in a twice-weekly 6-week seated IY program; the WLC group participated in the same yoga program, after the IY group's yoga program had ended. Pain, psychological, and mindfulness measures were collected at two time points for both groups (within 1-2 weeks before and after program 1 and at a third time point for the WLC group (within 1 week after program 2). RESULTS: Linear mixed-effect growth models were conducted to evaluate the main effects of group at T2 (postintervention), controlling for T1 (preintervention) scores. T2 depression scores were lower (F1,18=6.1, P<0.05) and T2 self-compassion scores higher (F1,18=6.57, P< 0.05) in the IY group compared to the WLC group. To increase sample size and power, the two groups were combined and analyzed across time by comparing pre- and postintervention scores. Main effects of time were found for depression scores, (F1,14.83=6.62, P<0.05), self-compassion, (F1,16.6=4.49, P<0.05), mindfulness (F1,16.79=5.42, P<0.05), mindful observing (F1,19.82=5.06, P<0.05), and mindful nonreactivity, (F1,16.53=4.92, P<0.05), all showing improvement after the intervention. DISCUSSION: The results indicated that a specialized 6-week yoga intervention reduced depressive symptoms and increased self-compassion in individuals with SCI, and may also have fostered greater mindfulness. SN - 1178-7090 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/28496356/Evaluation_of_a_specialized_yoga_program_for_persons_with_a_spinal_cord_injury:_a_pilot_randomized_controlled_trial_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S130530 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -