Ifenprodil and SL 82.0715 as cerebral anti-ischemic agents. II. Evidence for N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist properties.J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988 Dec; 247(3):1222-32.JP
The effects of the anti-ischemic agents ifenprodil and its derivative SL 82.0715 ((+/-)-alpha-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-[(4-fluorophenyl) methyl]-1-piperidineethanol] have been analyzed in a number of models indicative of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonistic potential in vitro and in vivo. Ifenprodil and SL 82.0715 potently and noncompetitively antagonize the stimulatory effects of NMDA on cyclic GMP production in immature rat cerebellar slices (IC50 values, 0.4 and 10 microM, respectively), as well as the NMDA-evoked [3H]acetylcholine release in adult rat striatal slices (IC50 values, 1.6 and 6.6 microM, respectively). Ifenprodil is 10 times more potent than (+/-)3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP) but less active than the reference noncompetitive NMDA channel blockers [MK 801, ((+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo-[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine ], phencyclidine and 1-[1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl]piperidine (TCP)] in these models. Ifenprodil and SL 82.0715 partially displace (maximal displacement 40-50% at 10 microM) the NMDA receptor ligand [3H]CPP from its binding site to rat brain membranes (IC50 values, 0.1 and 0.3 microM, respectively) in a noncompetitive manner; in the micromolar range the two agents also partially displace the NMDA channel ligand [3H]TCP from its binding site to rat brain membranes, and noncompetitively antagonize the L-glutamate-induced increase in [3H]TCP binding. Ifenprodil (0.01-1 microM) partially antagonizes the depolarizing effects of NMDA on the immature rat hemisected spinal cord in vitro. In mouse cultured spinal cord neurons, ifenprodil dose-dependently antagonizes the depolarizing effects of micropressure applied NMDA. Inhibition of the effects of NMDA in this model by ifenprodil and SL 82.0715 is noncompetitive. In vivo and after systemic i.p. administration, ifenprodil and SL 82.0715 antagonize the stimulatory effects of intrastriatally dialyzed NMDA on striatal dopamine release in rats (ID50 values, 0.9 and 0.3 mg/kg, respectively), and block the harmaline-evoked increase in cerebellar cyclic GMP production in mice (ID50 values, 3 and 4 mg/kg, respectively). These results indicate that ifenprodil is a noncompetitive NMDA antagonist which has a mechanism of action distinct from either the reference competitive NMDA receptor antagonists (CPP and 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate) or the noncompetitive NMDA channel blockers (phencyclidine, TCP and MK 801). The potent NMDA antagonistic effects of the ifenprodil class of compounds are likely to be related to the demonstrated anti-ischemic potential of these compounds.