Venous ultrasonography findings and clinical correlations in 104 Thai patients with chronic venous insufficiency of the legs.Singapore Med J. 2018 03; 59(3):155-158.SM
The pattern of venous reflux in Thai patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) was studied in correlation with clinical manifestations.
Ultrasonography findings and clinical data were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed.
CVI was found in 104 legs of 79 patients (mean age 59.8 ± 12.5 years; C4: 24.1%, C5: 8.9%, C6: 67.1%). 6.7% of the legs had a history of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The prevalence of superficial vein reflux (SVR), deep vein reflux (DVR), and combined SVR and DVR in 90 legs without previous venous surgery was 82.2%, 63.3% and 57.8%, respectively. In legs with SVR, the prevalence of great saphenous vein reflux (GSVR), small saphenous vein reflux (SSVR), and combined GSVR and SSVR was 91.9%, 33.8% and 25.7%, respectively. 77.0% of SVR involved the calf segment. For medial ulceration, 79.6% had GSVR and 35.2% had SSVR. For lateral ulceration, 46.7% had SSVR and 33.3% had isolated GSVR. Pulsatile venous signal was found in 3.3% of legs. In 17 legs with ulceration after previous surgical treatment, calf vein reflux (residual calf great saphenous vein or small saphenous vein) was found in 13 (76.5%) legs.
Calf vein reflux plays an important role in CVI and in patients with recurrent ulceration after previous superficial venous surgery. Although GSVR was present in most patients with CVI in the legs, SSVR may present in one-third of patients, especially those with lateral ulceration. The high prevalence of DVR in the absence of DVT and the presence of a pulsatile venous signal in some patients highlight the incomplete understanding of CVI aetiology.